However counterintuitive the idea might first seem, physiological ecologist Scott Turner demonstrates in this book that many animals construct and use structures to harness and control the flow of energy from their environment to their own ...
Author: J Scott Turner
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Can the structures that animals build--from the humble burrows of earthworms to towering termite mounds to the Great Barrier Reef--be said to live? However counterintuitive the idea might first seem, physiological ecologist Scott Turner demonstrates in this book that many animals construct and use structures to harness and control the flow of energy from their environment to their own advantage. Building on Richard Dawkins's classic, The Extended Phenotype, Turner shows why drawing the boundary of an organism's physiology at the skin of the animal is arbitrary. Since the structures animals build undoubtedly do physiological work, capturing and channeling chemical and physical energy, Turner argues that such structures are more properly regarded not as frozen behaviors but as external organs of physiology and even extensions of the animal's phenotype. By challenging dearly held assumptions, a fascinating new view of the living world is opened to us, with implications for our understanding of physiology, the environment, and the remarkable structures animals build.
In The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins crystallized the gene's eye view of evolution developed by W.D. Hamilton and others. The book provoked widespread and heated debate.
Author: Richard Dawkins
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins crystallized the gene's eye view of evolution developed by W.D. Hamilton and others. The book provoked widespread and heated debate. Written in part as a response, The Extended Phenotype gave a deeper clarification of the central concept of the gene as the unit of selection; but it did much more besides. In it, Dawkins extended the gene's eye view to argue that the genes that sit within an organism have an influence that reaches out beyond the visible traits in that body - the phenotype - to the wider environment, which can include other individuals. So, for instance, the genes of the beaver drive it to gather twigs to produce the substantial physical structure of a dam; and the genes of the cuckoo chick produce effects that manipulate the behaviour of the host bird, making it nurture the intruder as one of its own. This notion of the extended phenotype has proved to be highly influential in the way we understand evolution and the natural world. It represents a key scientific contribution to evolutionary biology, and it continues to play an important role in research in the life sciences. The Extended Phenotype is a conceptually deep book that forms important reading for biologists and students. But Dawkins' clear exposition is accessible to all who are prepared to put in a little effort. Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.
In Purpose and Desire, Turner draws on the work of Claude Bernard, a contemporary of Darwin revered among physiologists as the founder of experimental medicine, to build on Bernard’s "dangerous idea" of vitalism, which seeks to identify ...
Author: J. Scott Turner
A professor, biologist, and physiologist argues that modern Darwinism’s materialist and mechanistic biases have led to a scientific dead end, unable to define what life is—and only an openness to the qualities of "purpose and desire" will move the field forward. Scott Turner contends. "To be scientists, we force ourselves into a Hobson’s choice on the matter: accept intentionality and purposefulness as real attributes of life, which disqualifies you as a scientist; or become a scientist and dismiss life’s distinctive quality from your thinking. I have come to believe that this choice actually stands in the way of our having a fully coherent theory of life." Growing research shows that life's most distinctive quality, shared by all living things, is purpose and desire: maintain homeostasis to sustain life. In Purpose and Desire, Turner draws on the work of Claude Bernard, a contemporary of Darwin revered among physiologists as the founder of experimental medicine, to build on Bernard’s "dangerous idea" of vitalism, which seeks to identify what makes "life" a unique phenomenon of nature. To further its quest to achieve a fuller understanding of life, Turner argues, science must move beyond strictly accepted measures that consider only the mechanics of nature. A thoughtful appeal to widen our perspective of biology that is grounded in scientific evidence, Purpose and Desire helps us bridge the ideological evolutionary divide.
... genetic information to another groups of organisms . It is “ as if " that gives it
immunity to a type these genes are being selfish , not of antibiotics . At first it
seemed as that they are really selfish . if LGT affected only single - celled The Extended ...
4 ܙܕ with , " the extended sensorium or organism . “ The soul , as it were ,
occupies and pervades the sensorium as extended in all directions . ” 1 “ In
sensation proper the soul knows itself as united with the extended sensorium . " 2
" If the ...
Organism and environment . In Learning , Development and ... The organism as
subject and object of evolution . In The Dialectical Biologist ... The Extended Organism : The Physiology of Animal - Built Structures . Cambridge , MA :
Author: D. Kimbrough Oller
Publisher: Mit Press
Experts investigate communicative flexibility (in both form and usage of signals) as the foundation of the evolution of complex communication systems, including human language. The evolutionary roots of human communication are difficult to trace, but recent comparative research suggests that the first key step in that evolutionary history may have been the establishment of basic communicative flexibility--the ability to vocalize freely combined with the capability to coordinate vocalization with communicative intent. The contributors to this volume investigate how some species (particularly ancient hominids) broke free of the constraints of "fixed signals," actions that were evolved to communicate but lack the flexibility of language--a newborn infant's cry, for example, always signals distress and has a stereotypical form not modifiable by the crying baby. Fundamentally, the contributors ask what communicative flexibility is and what evolutionary conditions can produce it. The accounts offered in these chapters are notable for taking the question of language origins farther back in evolutionary time than in much previous work. Many contributors address the very earliest communicative break of the hominid line from the primate background; others examine the evolutionary origins of flexibility in, for example, birds and marine mammals. The volume's interdisciplinary theoretical perspectives illuminate issues that are on the cutting edge of recent research on this topic. Contributors Stéphanie Barbu, Curt Burgess, Josep Call, Laurance Doyle, Julia Fischer, Michael Goldstein, Ulrike Griebel, Kurt Hammerschmidt, Sean Hanser, Martine Hausberger, Laurence Henry, Allison Kaufman, Stan Kuczaj, Robert F. Lachlan, Brian MacWhinney, Radhika Makecha, Brenda McCowan, D. Kimbrough Oller, Michael Owren, Ron Schusterman, Charles T. Snowdon, Kim Sterelny, Benoît Testé, Gert Westermann
The extended organism has the following dimensions: length of body, 76-91 pu;
width of body, 29-33 pu; diameter of stalk, 9-11 pu. The mouth which opens at the
base of the oral disc is nearly triangular. The vestibulum is large and ellipsoid, ...
How is it shown to be correlative so far as to be extended , except it is taken to be
the analogon of the extended organism , i . c . , like it in being spatial in many
percepts , eto . , etc . , but unlike it in respect to other sense - percepts , as we
The extended aeration type of activated sludge system is represented by two
configurations shown in Figure 15. ... Also , because of the large organism weight
, there is a correspondingly large decrease of new or initial growth of volatile ...
... defines sensation " & subjective experience of the soul as animating an
extended sensorium , ” and when he says that " in each sensation the soul knows
itself to be affected in some separate part of the extended organism which it
Author: Edward John Hamilton
""Mental Science," therefore, is now offered as an educational manual, and as a compend for the reading of those who would inform themselves respecting the doctrines of an earnest philosophy without entering upon non-essential details. The majority of the discussions have been not merely abridged, but simplified; a considerable number have been entirely re-written. Some chapters, too, which are devoted to logical questions, and which may prove serviceable in connection with some future effort, have been omitted. It has, however, been the aim to present a true theory of every normal activity of the intellect"--Preface.
At least some biologists argue that an organism ' s behaviors must be treated as
part of that organism , not merely as something external . See J . SCOTT
TURNER , THE EXTENDED ORGANISM : THE PHYSIOLOGY OF ANIMAL -
In The Extended Mind, acclaimed author Robert K. Logan examines the origin, emergence, and co-evolution of language, the human mind, and culture.
Author: Robert K. Logan
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Category: Literary Criticism
The ability to communicate through language is such a fundamental part of human existence that we often take it for granted, rarely considering how sophisticated the process is by which we understand and make ourselves understood. In The Extended Mind, acclaimed author Robert K. Logan examines the origin, emergence, and co-evolution of language, the human mind, and culture. Building on his previous study, The Sixth Language (2000) and making use of emergence theory, Logan seeks to explain how language emerged to deal with the complexity of hominid existence brought about by tool-making, control of fire, social intelligence, coordinated hunting and gathering, and mimetic communication. The resulting emergence of language, he argues, signifies a fundamental change in the functioning of the human mind - a shift from percept-based thought to concept-based thought. From the perspective of the Extended Mind model, Logan provides an alternative to and critique of Noam Chomsky's approach to the origin of language. He argues that language can be treated as an organism that evolved to be easily acquired, obviating the need for the hard-wiring of Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device. In addition Logan shows how, according to this model, culture itself can be treated as an organism that has evolved to be easily attained, revealing the universality of human culture as well as providing an insight as to how altruism might have originated. Bringing timely insights to a fascinating field of inquiry, The Extended Mind will be sure to find a wide readership.
Organisms that capture currents . Scientific American 239 ... Interfacial organisms
: passive ventilation in the velocity gradients near surfaces . Science 175 ... The extended organism : the physiology of animal - built structures . Harvard ...
Yet both Mill and Dr. Bain seem to allow that when the extended area is very
small ( less than to of an inch in diameter ) ... of intensity — and that we are
originally and properly sentient and percipient of our own extended organism
and of that ...
Figures 7 and 9 are transverse sections , and Figures 12 and 14 are longitudinal
sections of the extended and ... Thus , the myoneme of Spirostomum changed
during the contraction - extension cycle of the organism as shown in Figure 16 .
Nor need we dwell on the fact that , as originally used , and as used by the mass
of mankind now , I means the individuality as a whole ; of which the extended organism forms in thought the dominant element . It will not be needful , either , to
The major problem for extended life cook chill is microbiological safety . The cook
- chill process is by no means a sterilisation process and spores of many organisms will survive the cooking and chilling processes , including the organism that ...
Now at least I study them for a few minutes before I take the vacuum cleaner to
them . Those other arachnids , the mites , are the subject of a chapter on leaf
galls in J. Scott Turner's The Extended Organism ( 2000 ) . Though I wouldn't call
However , reality as an organism is not only functional , structured extension , but
it can also be conceived and , being an organism , it can conceive . Therefore
reality may be described as an extended organism , but also as Vernunft . Both