Professor Manin challenges the conventional view that representative democracy is no more than an indirect form of government by the people, in which citizens elect representatives only because they cannot assemble and govern in person.
Author: Bernard Manin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Political Science
A survey of democratic institutions and republics reveals the aristocratic origins of democracy.
From the fifth to the twelfth century , we find no more traces of true representative government in England than upon ... the great fact which , from a very early period , determined the character and direction British institutions .
The first part of the book covers the period from the fifth to the eleventh century and such topics as the 'true' principles of representative government and the origin and consequences of the sovereignty of the people.
Author: François Guizot
“In every society there exists a certain sum of correct ideas. This sum of correct ideas is scattered among the individuals who make up the society and is unequally distributed among them. The problem is to gather up all the scattered and incomplete fragments of this power, to concentrate them, and to constitute them into a government. What is called ‘representation’ is nothing other than the means of arriving at this result. It is not an arithmetic machine intended to collect and enumerate individual wills. It is a natural process for extracting from the bosom of society the public reason that alone has the right to govern.” —from the book The French political philosopher and historian François Guizot (1787–1874) was one of the French Doctrinaires, thinkers who sought to avoid the interpretations of the Revolution advanced by either extreme of Left or Right. He argued that in order to understand the nature of political institutions it is necessary to study first the society, its composition, mores, and the relation between various classes. At the very center of his theory lies the principle of the sovereignty of reason. Aurelian Craiutu, associate professor of political science at Indiana University, writes in the introduction: "A cursory look at the table of contents shows the originality of this unusual book: it combines lengthy narrative chapters full of historical details with theoretical chapters in which Guizot reflects on the principles, goals, and institutions of representative government." The first part of the book covers the period from the fifth to the eleventh century and such topics as the "true" principles of representative government and the origin and consequences of the sovereignty of the people. The second part spans the Norman Conquest to the reign of the Tudors in England and analyzes the architecture of the English Constitutional monarchy. Guizot's historical method combined philosophy and history by passing from the exposition of facts to the examination of ideas. Readers not familiar with him will profit from an encounter with Guizot, who not only writes in a beautiful French style but also illustrates the French liberal-conservative tradition at its best, much like Constant and Tocqueville.
Based in Part Upon Thomas Hare's Treatise, Entitled "The Election of Representatives, Parliamentary and Municipal". ... We thus arrive at the great epoch of the history of English representative institutions , of the summons of a ...
Development of the Legislative Process in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Norman Meller ... 44–60; George L. Haskins, The Growth of English Representative Government (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1948), ...
Author: Norman Meller
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
In the western Pacific Ocean north of the equator, the far-flung islands of Micronesia extend across an area as large as that of the United States. Most of this area is administered by the United States as a trusteeship granted by the United Nations after World War II. Having been governed in turn by three other world powers— Spain, Germany, and Japan— the 91,000 Micronesian inhabitants are now at last in the process of working out their own political future. This book, a thorough, scholarly study of the development of the legislative process in the Trust Territory, focuses on the Congress of Micronesia, the legislature destined to carry the burden of the political development in the Territory. It examines institution-building over a period of two decades, describing how American forms and processes have been modified to fit the indigenous cultures of Micronesia, and how these cultures have accommodated to them. It also treats the impact of institutional change upon the role of indigenous leadership, highlighting the emergence of Micronesian leaders most capable of participating in the new political system. Here are detailed the day by day negotiations to set up a district legislature between the spokesmen for aboriginal Yap (of stone money fame) and the chiefs of the island empire which once paid it tribute. Here is described what happens when the U.S. Supreme Court’s “one man, one vote” formula is applied to people yet learning how to vote. The United States today has no defined policy for the eventual status of her Pacific island possessions. The future of Guam and American Samoa remains unclear. But the legislators of the Trust Territory have acted for the people they represent. Their adopted legislative institution will be central in determining whether or not the Trust Territory will become fully self-governing and independent.