Author: W. Montzka Harold W. MontzkaPublish On: 2010-02
Unlike today's world religious views, the belief in one Supreme Being was once a widespread phenomenon. In The Separation of Heaven and Earth, author Harold Montzka provides evidence of this contemporary view with new arguments.
Author: W. Montzka Harold W. Montzka
Publisher: Trafford Publishing
Unlike today's world religious views, the belief in one Supreme Being was once a widespread phenomenon. In The Separation of Heaven and Earth, author Harold Montzka provides evidence of this contemporary view with new arguments. By studying anthropology and the history of religions, Montzka shows evidence for the belief system of the egalitarian hunters who spread across the globe. In the Near East, the area from the mountains in Turkey to the Persian Gulf, people traded freely without evidence of borders or conflict. Then, social hierarchy became evident in a small area. Shortly after this, a number of hierarchical sites appeared suddenly, and society saw massive buildings, city walls, ethnic divisions, trade to benefit the elites, war, and instability. Developed over forty years, The Separation of Heaven and Earth points out that a single cosmological theme was present in ancient literature as well as recent preliterate hierarchies. The cosmology justifying the elites in hierarchical societies provided for the society by control of nature. Those few groups who have remained egalitarian do not use this cosmology. They are not dependent on the rituals of a social hierarchy; they depend on the providence of their creator.
for elemental Earth. During the Shang and Western Zhou dynasties, Heaven appeared almost interchangeably with the supreme god, Shangdi. Earth was not yet paired with Heaven in inscriptions or texts.21 During the Warring States era, ...
Author: Bret Hinsch
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
After a long spell of chaos, the Qin and Han dynasties (221 BCE–220 CE) saw the unification of the Chinese Empire under a single ruler, government, and code of law. During this era, changing social and political institutions affected the ways people conceived of womanhood. New ideals were promulgated, and women's lives gradually altered to conform to them. And under the new political system, the rulers' consorts and their families obtained powerful roles that allowed women unprecedented influence in the highest level of government. Recognized as the leading work in the field, this introductory survey offers the first sustained history of women in the early imperial era. Now in a revised edition that incorporates the latest scholarship and theoretical approaches, the book draws on extensive primary and secondary sources in Chinese and Japanese to paint a remarkably detailed picture of the distant past. Bret Hinsch's introductory chapters orient the nonspecialist to early imperial Chinese society; subsequent chapters discuss women's roles from the multiple perspectives of kinship, wealth and work, law, government, learning, ritual, and cosmology. An enhanced array of line drawings, a Chinese-character glossary, and extensive notes and bibliography enhance the author's discussion. Historians and students of gender and early China alike will find this book an invaluable overview.
These texts seek to transcend the hierarchy of Heaven , Earth , and man found in cexrs like the “ Neiye . " They call for some form of escape from the world of forms and exhibit either a lack of interest in or overt opposition to any ...
Author: Michael J. Puett
Evidence from Shang oracle bones to memorials submitted to Western Han emperors attests to a long-lasting debate in early China over the proper relationship between humans and gods. One pole of the debate saw the human and divine realms as separate and agonistic and encouraged divination to determine the will of the gods and sacrifices to appease and influence them. The opposite pole saw the two realms as related and claimed that humans could achieve divinity and thus control the cosmos. This wide-ranging book reconstructs this debate and places within their contemporary contexts the rival claims concerning the nature of the cosmos and the spirits, the proper demarcation between the human and the divine realms, and the types of power that humans and spirits can exercise. It is often claimed that the worldview of early China was unproblematically monistic and that hence China had avoided the tensions between gods and humans found in the West. By treating the issues of cosmology, sacrifice, and self-divinization in a historical and comparative framework that attends to the contemporary significance of specific arguments, Michael J. Puett shows that the basic cosmological assumptions of ancient China were the subject of far more debate than is generally thought.
The hierarchy of Heaven and Earth and the four directions was projected on to the human world, and relations of closeness, distance, higher and lower grew into ideas of a fixed status hierarchy. Even the ceremonies and the symbolic ...
Author: Zhaoguang Ge
A history of traditional Chinese thought with a new perspective, emphasizing contextualization and the complex dynamics between intellectual thought and its historical situations. It illuminates the significance of the Chinese world order, its underlying value system, the origins of Chinese cultural identity and foreign influences.
The primordial hierarchy is explicated in terms of “three bases” (san ben) that rites have. According to Xunzi, “Heaven and Earth are the basis of life, the ancestors are the basis of the family, and rulers and teachers are the basis of ...
Author: Keping Wang
This Key Concepts pivot considers the fundamental Chinese cultural ideal of harmony (hé/和). Historically originating from Confucianism, the concept of harmony sits at the heart of Chinese traditional culture, which is characteristically morality-based and harmony-conscious due to the central role of pragmatic reason and wisdom nurtured through Confucianism, Daoism, Mohism, Legalism and other schools of thought. This pivot delineates the rationale of the Chinese philosophy of harmony and its implications for modern social practices worldwide. It notably reexamines the relevance of hé beyond the realm of philosophy, and how this concept can impact on modern day human relations, amongst individuals and families as well as on a wider societal scale. It explores how hé can affect perspectives on political interaction, international relations and human conflict, as well as the interaction between man and nature. Addressing the inevitable tension between theory and practice, this book argues for the very real relevance of hé in 21st century cultural, social, political and economic spheres in China and beyond.
It was a normative order constituted by the complementary functions of heaven , earth , and the true gentleman . It also served as a normative standard , for instance by showing the naturalness of social hierarchy .
Author: Edward J. Machle
Publisher: SUNY Press
This translation and commentary on Xunzi's Tian Lun argues against naturalistic interpretations of Tian. Tracing the course of interpretation of Xunzi down to the present, discussing some of the influences that affected how he was understood, and raising questions about some contemporary revisionary attempts, Machle suggests unusual lines of interpretation.
As stated earlier, in Chinese legal cosmology, the essential components of the cosmos are Heaven, Earth, and humankind. This is a hierarchical structure: Heaven and Earth are the cosmic parents of humankind, generating and nurturing all ...
Author: Jiang Yonglin
Publisher: University of Washington Press
After overthrowing the Mongol Yuan dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), proclaimed that he had obtained the Mandate of Heaven (Tianming), enabling establishment of a spiritual orientation and social agenda for China. Zhu, emperor during the Ming’s Hongwu reign period, launched a series of social programs to rebuild the empire and define Chinese cultural identity. To promote its reform programs, the Ming imperial court issued a series of legal documents, culminating in The Great Ming Code (Da Ming lu), which supported China’s legal system until the Ming was overthrown and also served as the basis of the legal code of the following dynasty, the Qing (1644-1911). This companion volume to Jiang Yonglin’s translation of The Great Ming Code (2005) analyzes the thought underlying the imperial legal code. Was the concept of the Mandate of Heaven merely a tool manipulated by the ruling elite to justify state power, or was it essential to their belief system and to the intellectual foundation of legal culture? What role did law play in the imperial effort to carry out the social reform programs? Jiang addresses these questions by examining the transformative role of the Code in educating the people about the Mandate of Heaven. The Code served as a cosmic instrument and moral textbook to ensure “all under Heaven” were aligned with the cosmic order. By promoting, regulating, and prohibiting categories of ritual behavior, the intent of the Code was to provide spiritual guidance to Chinese subjects, as well as to acquire political legitimacy. The Code also obligated officials to obey the supreme authority of the emperor, to observe filial behavior toward parents, to care for the welfare of the masses, and to maintain harmonious relationships with deities. This set of regulations made officials the representatives of the Son of Heaven in mediating between the spiritual and mundane worlds and in governing the human realm. This study challenges the conventional assumption that law in premodern China was used merely as an arm of the state to maintain social control and as a secular tool to exercise naked power. Based on a holistic approach, Jiang argues that the Ming ruling elite envisioned the cosmos as an integrated unit; they saw law, religion, and political power as intertwined, remarkably different from the “modern” compartmentalized worldview. In serving as a cosmic instrument to manifest the Mandate of Heaven, The Great Ming Code represented a powerful religious effort to educate the masses and transform society.
I will do so in terms of the cosmic order of Heaven and earth , the human order , which parallels the cosmic order with its roots in the family and its fullest expression in the state , and lastly , the proper response of humans to ...
Author: Arvind Sharma
Publisher: SUNY Press
Category: Women and religion
This is a book by women about women in the religions of the world. It presents all the basic facts and ideological issues concerning the position of women in the major religious traditions of humanity: Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Taoism, and tribal religions. A special feature of the book is its phenomenological approach, wherein scholars examine sacred textual materials. Each contributor not only studies her religion from within, but also studies it from her own feminine perspective. Each is an adept historian of religions, who grounds her analysis in publicly verifiable facts. The book strikes a delicate balance between hard fact and delicate perception, the best tradition of phenomenology and the history of religions. It also demonstrates how much religions may vary over time. Contributors are Katherine K. Young, Associate Professor of Religious Studies at McGill University; Nancy Schuster Barnes, whose Ph.D. is in Sanskrit and Indian Studies; M. Theresa Kelleher, Assistant Professor of Religion and Asian Studies at Manhattanville College; Barbara Reed, Assistant Professor of Religion at St. Olaf College; Denise L. Carmody, Professor and Chair, Department of Religion, The University of Tulsa. Also Jane I. Smith, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and Lecturer in Islamic Studies at Harvard Divinity School; Rosemary Radford Ruether, Georgia Harkness Professor of Applied Theology at the Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary; Rita M. Gross, Associate Professor of Comparative Religions at the University of Wisconsin, Eau Clair.
In ancient China, the term Heaven and Earth2 was only not a concept of physical space. In the dictionary Yupian, Xu Kai defines “universe” as “dwelling”— “All things dwell within Heaven and Earth, as if one lives in a room and knows ...
Author: Guy Alitto
This volume focuses on contemporary Confucianism, and collects essays by famous sinologists such as Guy Alitto, John Makeham, Tse-ki Hon and others. The content is divided into three sections – addressing the “theory” and “practice” of contemporary Confucianism, as well as how the two relate to each other – to provide readers a more meaningful understanding of contemporary Confucianism and Chinese culture. In 1921, at the height of the New Culture Movement’s iconoclastic attack on Confucius, Liang Shuming (梁漱溟) fatefully predicted that in fact the future world culture would be Confucian. Over the nine decades that followed, Liang’s reputation and the fortunes of Confucianism in China rose and fell together. So, readers may be interested in the question whether it is possible that a reconstituted “Confucianism” might yet become China’s spiritual mainstream and a major constituent of world culture.