Author: Emiko Ohnuki-TierneyPublish On: 1989-04-21
This tripartite study of the monkey metaphor, the monkey performance, and the 'special status' people traces changes in Japanese culture from the eighth century to the present.
Author: Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Social Science
This tripartite study of the monkey metaphor, the monkey performance, and the 'special status' people traces changes in Japanese culture from the eighth century to the present. During early periods of Japanese history the monkey's nearness to the human-animal boundary made it a revered mediator or an animal deity closest to humans. Later it became a scapegoat mocked for its vain efforts to behave in a human fashion. Modern Japanese have begun to see a new meaning in the monkey--a clown who turns itself into an object of laughter while challenging the basic assumptions of Japanese culture and society.
How do we know? And what exactly are we? These questions are what make human evolution a subject of general fascination. Ian Tattersall, one of those rare scientists who is also a graceful writer, addresses them in this delightful book.
Author: Ian Tattersall
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Nothing fascinates us more than explorations of human origins, and nobody tells the story better than Ian Tattersall. What makes us so different? How did we get this way? How do we know? And what exactly are we? These questions are what make human evolution a subject of general fascination. Ian Tattersall, one of those rare scientists who is also a graceful writer, addresses them in this delightful book. Writing in an informal essay style, Tattersall leads the reader around the world and into the far reaches of the past, showing what the science of human evolution is up against-from the sparsity of evidence to the pressures of religious fundamentalism. Looking with dispassion and humor at our origins, Tattersall offers a wholly new definition of what it is to be human. Delightful stories, scientific wisdom, fresh insight-the perfect science book.
This imaginative picture book, written by Nersel zur Muehlen (Little Green Bird, Imaginary Toys) is beautifully illustrated by Sara Sanchez and illustrates the dark side of unjustified power and the power of curiosity.
Author: Nersel Zur Muehlen
Category: Juvenile Fiction
Monkey Forest is a happy place, until monkey Merlin stumbles upon a magic mirror that gives him vast power over the other monkeys. He seizes the opportunity and reigns as the vicious King Merlin, until one day a curious little monkey named Koko discovers his secret... This imaginative picture book, written by Nersel zur Muehlen (Little Green Bird, Imaginary Toys) is beautifully illustrated by Sara Sanchez and illustrates the dark side of unjustified power and the power of curiosity.
Author: M. R. Bawa MuhaiyaddeenPublish On: 1972-12-12
It is not intelligent enough to think that it is its reflection in the mirror. It will think
that it is another monkey. It will like to see it, embrace it and kiss it. Being unable
to succeed in its attempts, it will cry and wail. Again it will attempt to hug and ...
Introduction Mirror neurons are a particular class of visuomotor neurons originally
discovered in a sector ( area F5 ) of monkey's ventral premotor cortex . Their
defining functional characteristics is that they became active both when the monkey ...
Author: Maksim Stamenov
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
The emergence of language, social intelligence, and tool development are what made homo sapiens sapiens differentiate itself from all other biological species in the world. The use of language and the management of social and instrumental skills imply an awareness of intention and the consideration that one faces another individual with an attitude analogical to that of one's own. The metaphor of 'mirror' aptly comes to mind.Recent investigations have shown that the human ability to 'mirror' other's actions originates in the brain at a much deeper level than phenomenal awareness. A new class of neurons has been discovered in the premotor area of the monkey brain: 'mirror neurons'. Quite remarkably, they are tuned to fire to the enaction as well as observation of specific classes of behavior: fine manual actions and actions performed by mouth. They become activated independent of the agent, be it the self or a third person whose action is observed. The activation in mirror neurons is automatic and binds the observation and enaction of some behavior by the self or by the observed other. The peculiar first-to-third-person 'intersubjectivity' of the performance of mirror neurons and their surprising complementarity to the functioning of strategic communicative face-to-face (first-to-second person) interaction may shed new light on the functional architecture of conscious vs. unconscious mental processes and the relationship between behavioral and communicative action in monkeys, primates, and humans. The present volume discusses the nature of mirror neurons as presented by the research team of Prof. Giacomo Rizzolatti (University of Parma), who originally discovered them, and the implications to our understanding of the evolution of brain, mind and communicative interaction in non-human primates and man.(Series B)
Karen Emmorey 4.1 Introduction “Mirror” neurons are found in area F5 of the monkey brain, and they fire both when a monkey grasps an object and when the monkey observes another individual grasping the object (e.g., Rizzolatti et al.,
Author: Michael A. Arbib
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Mirror neurons may hold the brain's key to social interaction - each coding not only a particular action or emotion but also the recognition of that action or emotion in others. The Mirror System Hypothesis adds an evolutionary arrow to the story - from the mirror system for hand actions, shared with monkeys and chimpanzees, to the uniquely human mirror system for language. In this accessible volume, experts from child development, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, primatology and robotics present and analyse the mirror system and show how studies of action and language can illuminate each other. Topics discussed in the fifteen chapters include: what do chimpanzees and humans have in common? Does the human capability for language rest on brain mechanisms shared with other animals? How do human infants acquire language? What can be learned from imaging the human brain? How are sign- and spoken-language related? Will robots learn to act and speak like humans?
This prompted the hypothesis that some functions represented in area F5 in
monkeys may have moved to the evolutionary ... Altogether, these data support
the idea that some of the functions of the monkey mirror system were
incorporated into ...
Author: Pier Francesco Ferrari
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
The discovery of mirror neurons caused a revolution in neuroscience and psychology. Nevertheless, because of their profound impact within life sciences, mirror neuron are still the subject of numerous debates concerning their origins and their functions. With more than 20 years of research in this area, it is timely to synthesise the expanding literature on this topic. New Frontiers in Mirror Neurons provides a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in mirror neurons research - accessible both to experts and to non-experts. In the book, leading scholars draw on the latest research to examine methodological approaches, theoretical implications, and the latest findings on mirror neurons research. A broad range of topics are covered within the book: basic findings and new concepts in action-perception theory, functional properties and evolution, development, and clinical implications. In particular, the last two sections of the book outline the importance of the plasticity and development of the mirror neuron system. This knowledge will be key in future research for helping us understand possible disorders associated with impairments in the mirror neurons system, as well as in helping us design new therapeutic tools for interventions within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders and in neurorehabilitation. New Frontiers in Mirror Neurons is an exciting new work for neuroscientists, psychologists, and philosophers of mind.
But here is a significant point telling about how mirror neurons discharge even
reflects the relevance or importance of the ... They discharged vigorously when the monkey observed the experimenter grasping a piece of food and
Author: Stein Bråten
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
Category: Family & Relationships
"The Intersubjective Mirror in Infant Learning and Evolution of Speech" illustrates how recent findings about primary intersubjectivity, participant perception and mirror neurons afford a new understanding of children s nature, dialogue and language. Based on recent infancy research and the mirror neurons discovery, studies of early speech perception, comparative primate studies and computer simulations of language evolution, this book offers replies to questions as: When and how may spoken language have emerged? How is it that infants so soon after birth become so efficient in their speech perception? What enables 11-month-olds to afford and reciprocate care? What are the steps from infant imitation and simulation of body movements to simulation of mind in conversation partners? Stein Braten is founder and chair of the Theory Forum network with some of the world s leading infancy, primate and brain researchers who have contributed to his edited volumes for Cambridge University Press (1998) and John Benjamins Publishing Company (2007). (Series B)"
PF IP PFG STS part: F5 mirror neuron. The neuron discharges when the monkey
grasps an object (a) and when it observes another individual grasping it (b).
Lower part: The central part of the figure shows the cytoarchitectonic parcellation
Behavioral Neuroscientists study the behavior of animals and humans and the neurobiological and physiological processes that control it. Behavior is the ultimate function of the nervous system, and the study of it is very multidisciplinary. Disorders of behavior in humans touch millions of people’s lives significantly, and it is of paramount importance to understand pathological conditions such as addictions, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism among others, in order to be able to develop new treatment possibilities. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience is the first and only multi-volume reference to comprehensively cover the foundation knowledge in the field. This three volume work is edited by world renowned behavioral neuroscientists George F. Koob, The Scripps Research Institute, Michel Le Moal, Université Bordeaux, and Richard F. Thompson, University of Southern California and written by a premier selection of the leading scientists in their respective fields. Each section is edited by a specialist in the relevant area. The important research in all areas of Behavioral Neuroscience is covered in a total of 210 chapters on topics ranging from neuroethology and learning and memory, to behavioral disorders and psychiatric diseases. The only comprehensive Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience on the market Addresses all recent advances in the field Written and edited by an international group of leading researchers, truly representative of the behavioral neuroscience community Includes many entries on the advances in our knowledge of the neurobiological basis of complex behavioral, psychiatric, and neurological disorders Richly illustrated in full color Extensively cross referenced to serve as the go-to reference for students and researchers alike The online version features full searching, navigation, and linking functionality An essential resource for libraries serving neuroscientists, psychologists, neuropharmacologists, and psychiatrists
Macaque monkey's mirror neurons therefore respond to acts made by others not
exclusively on the basis of their visual description, but on the basis of the
anticipation of the final goal-state of the motor act, by means of the activation of its
Author: Jaime A. Pineda
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The aim of this book is to bring together social scientists, cognitive scientists, psychologists, neuroscientists, neuropsychologists and others to promote a dialogue about the variety of processes involved in social cognition, as well as the relevance of mirroring neural systems to those processes. Social cognition is a broad discipline that encompasses many issues not yet adequately addressed by neurobiologists. Yet, it is a strong belief that framing these issues in terms of the neural basis of social cognition, especially within an evolutionary perspective, can be a very fruitful strategy. This book includes some of the leading thinkers in the nascent field of mirroring processes and reflects the authors’ attempts to till common ground from a variety of perspectives. The book raises contrary views and addresses some of the most vexing yet core questions in the field – providing the basis for extended discussion among interested readers and laying down guidelines for future research. It has been argued that interaction with members of one’s own social group enhances cognitive development in primates and especially humans (Barrett & Henzi, 2005). Byrne and Whiten (1988), Donald (1991), and others have speculated that abilities such as cooperation, deception, and imitation led to increasingly complex social interactions among primates resulting in a tremendous expansion of the cerebral cortex. The evolutionary significance of an imitation capability in primates is matched by its ontological consequences.
The New England scientists realized, and then the California researchers, that the monkey disease was almost a mirror of the human one. Like AIDS, it was a
virus that eventually crumbled the immune system into unworkable bits. All the ...
Author: Deborah Blum
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The controversy over the use of primates in research admits of no easy answers. We have all benefited from the medical discoveries of primate research--vaccines for polio, rubella, and hepatitis B are just a few. But we have also learned more in recent years about how intelligent apes and monkeys really are: they can speak to us with sign language, they can even play video games (and are as obsessed with the games as any human teenager). And activists have also uncovered widespread and unnecessarily callous treatment of animals by researchers (in 1982, a Silver Spring lab was charged with 17 counts of animal cruelty). It is a complex issue, made more difficult by the combative stance of both researchers and animal activists. In The Monkey Wars, Deborah Blum gives a human face to this often caustic debate--and an all-but-human face to the subjects of the struggle, the chimpanzees and monkeys themselves. Blum criss-crosses America to show us first hand the issues and personalities involved. She offers a wide-ranging, informative look at animal rights activists, now numbering some twelve million, from the moderate Animal Welfare Institute to the highly radical Animal Liberation Front (a group destructive enough to be placed on the FBI's terrorist list). And she interviews a wide variety of researchers, many forced to conduct their work protected by barbed wire and alarm systems, men and women for whom death threats and hate mail are common. She takes us to Roger Fouts's research center in Ellensburg, Washington, where we meet five chimpanzees trained in human sign language, and we visit LEMSIP, a research facility in New York State that has no barbed wire, no alarms--and no protesters chanting outside--because its director, Jan Moor-Jankowski, listens to activists with respect and treats his animals humanely. And along the way, Blum offers us insights into the many side-issues involved: the intense battle to win over school kids fought by both sides, and the danger of transplanting animal organs into humans. "As it stands now," Blum concludes, "the research community and its activist critics are like two different nations, nations locked in a long, bitter, seemingly intractable political standoff....But if you listen hard, there really are people on both sides willing to accept and work within the complex middle. When they can be freely heard, then we will have progressed to another place, beyond this time of hostilities." In The Monkey Wars, Deborah Blum gives these people their voice.
monkey. and. the. mirror. Galileo did not believe that there were sound physical
and logical arguments to assume the exist- ence of a sphere of fixed stars. Nor
did he trust his sensory impressions sufficiently to provide evidence of its
Author: Marco Piccolino
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Galileo is known as a pioneer of science - especially of mechanics and astronomy - but far less attention has been paid to his work on the senses generally, and more specifically on vision. In this book, two experts on the history of science look at the novel ways in which Galileo looked at the heavens through his telescope, and, in the process, emphasised the importance of contrast phenomena and visual resolution for all observations. He also described the senses and perception in terms that found an echo in doctrines advanced by nineteenth century sensory physiologists. In a fascinating and accessible style, Marco Piccolino and Nick Wade analyse the scientific and philosophical work of Galileo Galilei from the particular viewpoint of his approach to the senses (and especially vision) as a means of acquiring trustworthy knowledge about the constitution of the world. For Galileo evidence from the senses was potentially ambiguous, hence reliable information capable of penetrating the complexity of reality could only be obtained by interpreting the sensory data critically. The philosophical background of Galileo's attitude to the senses was his awareness that nature had not developed a specific language aimed at communicating with senses generally and human senses in particular. Galileo's analysis of the senses corresponded closely to a fundamental tenet of modern sensory physiology and psychophysics - the absence in the world of specific sensory signals like sounds, colours, tastes, and odours. Fully illustrated throughout, this book is an important contribution to psychology and the vision sciences, but more broadly to our knowledge of a pioneering figure in the history of science.
Mirror neurons were first discovered around 1996 by neuroscientist, Giacomo
Rizzolatti, during a laboratory experiment with monkeys. The monkeys were
wired to a functional magnetic resonance imaging machine (FMRI). The
Author: Nancy Burns
Publisher: Author House
The Birth Mandalas book includes mandala art, a guided visualization and thought provoking exercises for an empowering childbirth experience. A birth mandala is sacred art for childbirth. The mandala appears from a dark background, like the baby emerging from the darkness of the womb into the light. Enjoy creative processes that access the subconscious. The way childbirth is perceived influences labor and birth. Subconscious beliefs, formed from what you’ve seen, heard or experienced, can either sabotage or affirm your conscious intentions. Learn how to effortlessly re-write limiting beliefs with ones that assist you during childbirth. Your birth mandala embodies your new beliefs and vision for labor and birth with symbols, images, designs and words. You will find women’s mandalas, journals and their after-birth reflections. From Shannon’s healing of past sexual abuse, Amy’s strength and courage, to Stacy’s power of intention, the themes and revelations are as unique as their mandalas. Creating a birth mandala is an invaluable gift you give yourself for childbirth. “It is the gift that keeps on giving,” exclaims Stacy, a workshop participant.
The tale of the Monkey Girl gave me what I needed most at a critical time in my
life: the image of the creative and complex woman, unique to herself but willing to
share those considerable gifts with a man capable of intuiting the wealth of her ...
Author: Kate Bernheimer
Category: Social Science
New edition (revised and expanded) available 8/13/02. Fairy tales are one of the most enduring forms of literature, their plots retold and characters reimagined for centuries. In this elegant and thought-provoking collection of original essays, Kate Bernheimer brings together twenty-eight leading women writers to discuss how these stories helped shape their imaginations, their craft, and our culture. In poetic narratives, personal histories, and penetrating commentary, the assembled authors bare their soul and challenge received wisdom. Eclectic and wide-ranging, Mirror, Mirror on the Wall is essential reading for anyone who has ever been bewitched by the strange and fanciful realm of fairy tales. Contributors include: Alice Adams, Julia Alvarez, Margaret Atwood, Ann Beattie, Rosellen Brown, A. S. Byatt, Kathryn Davis, Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, Deborah Eisenberg, Maria Flook, Patricia Foster, Vivian Gornick, Lucy Grealy, bell hooks, Fanny Howe, Fern Kupfer, Ursula K. Le Guin, Carole Maso, Jane Miller, Lydia Millet, Joyce Carol Oates, Connie Porter, Francine Prose, Linda Gray Sexton, Midori Snyder, Fay Weldon, Joy Williams, Terri Windling.
observes them performed by others, from canonical neurons in F5, which are
active when the monkey performs certain actions but not when the monkey
observes actions performed by others. Mirror neurons receive input from the PF
region of ...
Author: Chrystopher L. Nehaniv
Publisher: MIT Press
An interdisciplinary overview of current research on imitation in animals andartifacts.
Mirror neurons were discovered accidentally in the 1980s when a team of Italian
scientists began inserting tiny electrodes into individual neurons in the brains of
Macaque monkeys. The researchers were trying to find out what some individual
Author: Jonathan Haidt
New York Times Bestseller In this “landmark contribution to humanity’s understanding of itself” (The New York Times Book Review) social psychologist Jonathan Haidt challenges conventional thinking about morality, politics, and religion in a way that speaks to conservatives and liberals alike. Drawing on his twenty five years of groundbreaking research on moral psychology, Haidt shows how moral judgments arise not from reason but from gut feelings. He shows why liberals, conservatives, and libertarians have such different intuitions about right and wrong, and he shows why each side is actually right about many of its central concerns. In this subtle yet accessible book, Haidt gives you the key to understanding the miracle of human cooperation, as well as the curse of our eternal divisions and conflicts. If you’re ready to trade in anger for understanding, read The Righteous Mind.
Before focusing on specifics, it's worth pointing out that the very use of the term mirror neurons can be confusing. As we heard, the label was originally applied to
cells in motor parts of the monkey brain that showed mirror-like sensory ...
Author: Christian Jarrett
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Great Myths of the Brain introduces readers to the fieldof neuroscience by examining popular myths about the humanbrain. Explores commonly-held myths of the brain through the lens ofscientific research, backing up claims with studies and otherevidence from the literature Looks at enduring myths such as “Do we only use 10% ofour brain?”, “Pregnant women lose their mind”,“Right-brained people are more creative” and manymore. Delves into myths relating to specific brain disorders,including epilepsy, autism, dementia, and others Written engagingly and accessibly for students and lay readersalike, providing a unique introduction to the study of thebrain Teaches readers how to spot neuro hype and neuro-nonsenseclaims in the media
Scientists discovered mirror neurons in the 1990s by happenstance while
researching brain activity in monkeys. Neuroscientists Giacomo Rizzolatti,
Leonardo Fogassi, and Vittorio Gallese of the University of Parma in Italy had run
Author: Judith Horstman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Who do we love? Who loves us? And why? Is love really a mystery, or can neuroscience offer some answers to these age-old questions? In her third enthralling book about the brain, Judith Horstman takes us on a lively tour of our most important sex and love organ and the whole smorgasbord of our many kinds of love-from the bonding of parent and child to the passion of erotic love, the affectionate love of companionship, the role of animals in our lives, and the love of God. Drawing on the latest neuroscience, she explores why and how we are born to love-how we're hardwired to crave the companionship of others, and how very badly things can go without love. Among the findings: parental love makes our brain bigger, sex and orgasm make it healthier, social isolation makes it miserable-and although the craving for romantic love can be described as an addiction, friendship may actually be the most important loving relationship of your life. Based on recent studies and articles culled from the prestigious Scientific American and Scientific American Mind magazines, The Scientific American Book of Love, Sex, and the Brain offers a fascinating look at how the brain controls our loving relationships, most intimate moments, and our deep and basic need for connection.
... the month . At its approach he was called to the last day of his life . In he was
always nervous , disquieted and an . 1782 , he first appeared at Sadlers Wells , in
xious : directly it had passed he was another the arduous character of a monkey ...
Category: Popular literature
Containing original essays; historical narratives, biographical memoirs, sketches of society, topographical descriptions, novels and tales, anecdotes, select extracts from new and expensive works, the spirit of the public journals, discoveries in the arts and sciences, useful domestic hints, etc. etc. etc.