The Nationality of Corporate Investors Under International Investment Law

The Nationality of Corporate Investors Under International Investment Law

The book examines different understandings of corporate personality and nationality under a selection of jurisdictions and public international law.

Author: Anil Yilmaz Vastardis

Publisher: Hart Publishing

ISBN: 9781509944651

Category: Law

Page: 0

View: 967

This monograph offers a detailed and distinctive analysis of corporate nationality under international investment law, covering the ICSID Convention and the investment treaty framework. It takes the reader back to the basics, threading through the concepts of jurisdiction, nationality, and corporate personality to give a clear context to the discussion of corporate nationality under international investment law, at a time when international investment is dominated by multinational business enterprises operating in a globalised economy. The book examines different understandings of corporate personality and nationality under a selection of jurisdictions and public international law. It also offers an in-depth analysis of approaches found in ICSID arbitral awards and in investment treaty practice, distilling the problematic areas and discussing the impacts of the areas of concern. It evaluates the techniques developed to address problems and puts forward suggestions for effective and balanced solutions to the questions of corporate nationality and personal scope of investment protection.
Categories: Law

Investment Treaty Law

Investment Treaty Law

In 2005, as part of its research activities in the field of investment treaty law and arbitration, the Investment Treaty Forum at the British Institute of International and Comparative Law organized two very successful public conferences in ...

Author: British Institute of International and Comparative Law

Publisher: BIICL

ISBN: 9781905221080

Category: Law

Page: 278

View: 962

In 2005, as part of its research activities in the field of investment treaty law and arbitration, the Investment Treaty Forum at the British Institute of International and Comparative Law organized two very successful public conferences in London addressing the issues of 'Nationality and Investment Treaty Claims' and 'Fair and Equitable Treatment in Investment Treaty Law.' This publication records the presentations given by very distinguished experts in the field. The first conference addressed a central issue in international law. Nationality sits at the heart of the debate over the rights and participation of private parties in international relations. In international investment law, nationality constitutes one of the central criteria defining the scope of application of international investment agreements such as the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) Convention or the several thousands bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and free trade agreements (FTAs). Topics addressed at the conference include the issue of nationality of physical and legal persons, the requirements for substantive and continuous nationality, as well as the issue of nationality in derivative actions and indirect claims. The second conference dealt with potentially the most important and elusive obligation imposed on States by international investment treaties: the fair and equitable treatment standard. The elements that are usually cited by the case law and by legal scholars in the attempt to describe the meaning of the fair and equitable treatment standard include very broad concepts that are open to differing interpretations depending fundamentally on the perceived objectives of the international investment system. Among the topics addressed at the conference were the application of the fair and equitable treatment standard in customary international law and in investment treaty practice; equivalent standards under domestic administrative law; the relationship between the fair and equitable standard and expropriation; and the relevance of the conduct of the investor in determining a breach of the fair and equitable treatment standard.
Categories: Law

The Bona Fide Investor

The Bona Fide Investor

This book is the first in-depth exploration of a substantive legal basis by which to assess the bona fides of a corporate investor's identity in a convenient jurisdiction: i.e., examination of the purpose for which a corporate exists in the ...

Author: SIMON. FOOTE QC

Publisher:

ISBN: 9403541857

Category:

Page: 264

View: 961

International Arbitration Law Library, Volume 63 [IALL-63] Many corporations engage in treaty shopping - or 'nationality planning' - to procure investment treaty protection by attainment of a nationality of convenience. This book is the first in-depth exploration of a substantive legal basis by which to assess the bona fides of a corporate investor's identity in a convenient jurisdiction: i.e., examination of the purpose for which a corporate exists in the ownership structure of the relevant investment. In a comprehensive review of the concept of treaty shopping, the author examines the degree to which manipulation of corporate nationality is consistent with the objects and purposes of the investment treaty regime, and analyses its effect on the legitimacy of investor-state dispute mechanisms. To evaluate a substantive test for a bona fide investor, the book looks to analogous areas of international law such as the law of diplomatic protection and double tax treaties, and reviews in detail the relevance in investment treaty law of such pertinent issues and topics as the following: the concept of separate legal personality; abuse of the corporate form at municipal law; the role of Article 25 of the ICSID Convention; the approach to the nationality of natural persons; the approach to the jurisdictional concept of an 'investment'; criteria used to connote corporate nationality; the concept of the commercial purpose of the corporate investor claimant; the concept and limits of the principle of abuse of right at international law; and the application of, and the relationship between, the four tenets of Article 31(1) of the Vienna Convention: ordinary meaning, good faith, context, and object and purpose. The effectiveness of substantive criteria presently used to mitigate illegitimate or undesirable treaty shopping are examined and compared with the 'purpose to exist' test, and the prospective legal mechanisms that may be utilised to implement a substantive approach are canvassed in detail. This incomparable book brings coherence - and indeed a solution - to the debate about the attribution and use of nationality by corporations in the field of investment treaty law. It is a giant step towards legal certainty as to the need for, and the means by which, limits can be placed on investment treaty jurisdiction for corporate entities. It will be of immense interest to practitioners who advise on jurisdictional issues for clients (whether states or investors) and debate jurisdictional concepts and corporate nationality issues before international tribunals. It will also be a useful resource, and a challenge, to arbitrators regarding the extent to which investment treaty tribunals tolerate manipulation of corporate nationality and circumscribe jurisdiction to protect the legitimacy of the investment treaty system.
Categories:

International Investment Law and the Law of Armed Conflict

International Investment Law and the Law of Armed Conflict

These include substantive and procedural topics, not only with regard to international investment law, but also concerning the law on the use of force, international humanitarian law and human rights law, the law of treaties, the law of ...

Author: Katia Fach Gómez

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030107468

Category: Law

Page: 536

View: 826

Assessing the extent to which armed conflict impacts the obligations that states have towards foreign investors and their investments under international investment treaties requires considering a wide range of issues, many of which are systemic in nature. These include substantive and procedural topics, not only with regard to international investment law, but also concerning the law on the use of force, international humanitarian law and human rights law, the law of treaties, the law of state responsibility and the law of state succession.This volume provides an in-depth assessment of the overlap between international investment law and the law of armed conflict by charting the terrain of the multifaceted and complex relationship between these two fields of public international law, fostering debate and offering novel perspectives on the matter.
Categories: Law

Piercing the Corporate Veil Doctrine in International Investment Agreements

Piercing the Corporate Veil Doctrine in International Investment Agreements

Diploma Thesis from the year 2017 in the subject Law - Miscellaneous, grade: 1.7, Humboldt-University of Berlin (International Dispute Resolution Master of Laws (LL.M.) Programme), course: International Investment Arbitration, language: ...

Author: Anastasiia Dulska

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783668716377

Category: Law

Page: 58

View: 893

Diploma Thesis from the year 2017 in the subject Law - Miscellaneous, grade: 1.7, Humboldt-University of Berlin (International Dispute Resolution Master of Laws (LL.M.) Programme), course: International Investment Arbitration, language: English, abstract: The piercing the corporate veil in ISDS plays a twofold role. From the investors’ perspective, it is instrumental if a tribunal can ignore the difference between the legal personality of the company in which they invested in and the shares that they hold. Per contra, States also invoke this doctrine by trying to convince a tribunal to look at the true personalities involved and not to allow an investor to hide behind the veil of the different legal personalities. To address these competing interests, the author of this Master Thesis in Chapter II intends to analyse the characteristic pattern and standing of shareholders in bringing indirect claims aimed to persuade the tribunal to ignore the difference between the legal personality of a company and its shareholders and to look at the true interests at stake instead. In Chapter III, the applicability of the piercing the corporate veil doctrine will be approached from the States’ perspective and when they invoke the denial of benefits clauses. On the basis of the foregoing, this Master Thesis purports to address the intersection between the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal in ISDS and the concepts of investor and investment underlying the application of the piercing the corporate veil doctrine. By doing so, the author of this Master Thesis explores the provisions of IIAs commented on by authoritative treatises, contemporary views embodied in articles, and jurisprudence of international investment treaty tribunals. In order to arrive at its findings and conclusions, this Master Thesis utilizes the method of description, method of conceptual analysis, comparative method, and method of evaluation.
Categories: Law

Treaty Shopping in International Investment Law

Treaty Shopping in International Investment Law

This book analyses and discusses the different ways by which arbitral tribunals have dealt with the value judgment at the core of the distinction between objectionable and unobjectionable treaty shopping, and makes proposals de lege ferenda ...

Author: Jorun Baumgartner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191090820

Category: Law

Page: 352

View: 626

Treaty shopping, also known under the terms of nationality planning, corporate (re-)structuring or corporate maneuvering, implies a strategic change of nationality or strategic invocation of another nationality with the aim of accessing another (usually more favourable) investment treaty for purposes of investment arbitration. When deciding on whether an investment claim based on treaty shopping should be upheld or dismissed, investment arbitral tribunals have been increasingly faced with significant questions, such as: What is treaty shopping and how may legitimate nationality planning be distinguished from treaty abuse in international investment law? Should a claimant that is controlled by a host-State national be considered a protected investor, or should tribunals pierce its corporate veil? Does an investor have to make the investment in good faith, and does it have to make a contribution of its own to the investment it is claiming protection for? When does a corporate restructuring constitute an abuse of process, and which is the role of the notion of dispute in this respect? How efficient are denial of benefits clauses to counter treaty shopping? Treaty Shopping in International Investment Law examines in a systematic manner the practice of treaty shopping in international investment law and arbitral decisions that have undertaken to draw this line. While some legal approaches taken by arbitral tribunals have started to consolidate, others remain unsettled, painting a picture of an overall inconsistent jurisprudence. This is hardly surprising, given the thousands of international investment agreements that provide for the investor ́s right to sue the host State on grounds of alleged breaches of investment obligations. This book analyses and discusses the different ways by which arbitral tribunals have dealt with the value judgment at the core of the distinction between objectionable and unobjectionable treaty shopping, and makes proposals de lege ferenda on how States could reform their international investment agreements (in particular with respect to treaty drafting) in order to make them less susceptible to the practice of treaty shopping.
Categories: Law

Good Faith and International Economic Law

Good Faith and International Economic Law

In response to these developments, this book contains the first comprehensive and integrated analysis of the treatment of good faith in international investment law, noting the broader implications of good faith in public international law ...

Author: Andrew D. Mitchell

Publisher: International Economic Law

ISBN: 9780198739791

Category: Law

Page: 225

View: 394

The past two decades have seen a significant proliferation of trade and investment treaties around the world. States are increasingly negotiating agreements that regulate both trade and investment, such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. The number of investor-state dispute settlement cases is growing dramatically each year, yet states' enthusiasm for investor-state arbitration has become more qualified as concern has intensified that the system can be abused by foreign investors. Good faith is therefore becoming increasingly important as a principle, particularly in the investment context, due to disputes about investor conduct such as corporate restructuring in order to gain the protection of a particular investment treaty regarding an existing or foreseeable dispute, and States' responses to public policy concerns through attempts to modify or terminate investment treaties in the face of ongoing or expected claims. Tribunals adjudicating investment disputes have used the principle of good faith in a haphazard and uncoordinated manner, causing serious problems of uncertainty and inconsistency. In response to these developments, this book contains the first comprehensive and integrated analysis of the treatment of good faith in international investment law, noting the broader implications of good faith in public international law and international trade law.
Categories: Law

Attribution in International Investment Law

Attribution in International Investment Law

About this book: Attribution in International Investment Law is the first in-depth book on attribution in international investment law analysing the treatment of attribution in applicable legal instruments and investment arbitration ...

Author: Csaba Kovács

Publisher: International Arbitration Law

ISBN: 9041196757

Category: Law

Page: 352

View: 358

About this book: Attribution in International Investment Law is the first in-depth book on attribution in international investment law analysing the treatment of attribution in applicable legal instruments and investment arbitration jurisprudence worldwide. The term 'attribution' refers to the means by which it is ascertained whether the State is involved in a dispute governed by international law. The notion of attribution is primarily used to determine if the State is responsible for the wrongful conduct of persons or entities with links to the State. In the context of international investment law, the exponentially growing arbitration jurisprudence arising from international investment agreements, especially bilateral investment treaties, reflects the extent and risk of attribution determined in investment relationships that often involve State enterprises. This book provides an extensive review of the application of special or customary rules of attribution for the purposes of State responsibility in investor-State disputes. What's in this book: The analysis responds to such questions as the following: When is a conduct attributable to the State for the purposes of its responsibility under international investment law? What legal instruments govern the question of attribution under international investment law? In what circumstances is the State the proper party to a contract entered into by a State-owned enterprise with an investor protected by an investment treaty? How can State policymakers minimise their international legal responsibility within the existing framework of attribution in international investment law? How can investors maximise their protection within the existing framework of attribution in international investment law? Also covered are the procedural treatment of attribution by investment tribunals, explication of such broad-brush wordings as 'elements of governmental authority' and 'under the direction or control' and the impact of the rise of State-owned enterprises as investors. Ongoing and future trends in the jurisprudence are also taken into account facilitating the understanding of the diversity of State organisation and the variety of ways in which State enterprises interact with foreign investors or act as foreign investors. How this will help you: A one-stop reference on the question of attribution in international investment law, the analysis extracts identifiable commonalities among instruments and rulings, turning them into useful practice tools. This book will prove to be an invaluable instrumental reference tool for practitioners advising States or investors in investment disputes. Providing practical guidance as to the circumstances in which an act or omission is attributable to a State in international investment law, this book will be welcomed by arbitrators, in-house counsel for companies doing transnational business and international arbitration centres, and by academics in international arbitration.
Categories: Law

The Protection of Legitimate Expectations in International Investment Law

The Protection of Legitimate Expectations in International Investment Law

This book was prepared by the author in his personal capacity. The opinions expressed in the book are the author’s own and do not reflect the view of any other person or entity.

Author: Marcin Kałduński

Publisher: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika

ISBN: 9788323143635

Category: Law

Page: 30

View: 154

The book examines the conception of legitimate expectations in international investment law under the fair and equitable treatment. The author examines the purpose, content and elements of legitimate expectations. He also analyses the case law to identify and explain the protection granted to expectations of foreign investors under investment treaties. To this end, the book distinguishes the core elements of legitimate expectations, with particular attention being given both to the conduct of the host State and legitimacy of expectations, and provides a detailed analysis of these issues to consider whether good faith forms the basis for the protection of legitimate expectations. Combining a jurisprudential analysis of the case law arising in international tribunals with a dogmatic and scholar approach, this book offers a thought-provoking study of the protection of legitimate expectations, for students and practitioners alike. This book was prepared by the author in his personal capacity. The opinions expressed in the book are the author’s own and do not reflect the view of any other person or entity. Marcin Kałduński is Professor of International Law at the Nicolaus Copernicus University (Toruń, Poland) and Counsel at the General Counsel to the Republic of Poland. He teaches international law and acts as counsel in investment arbitration.
Categories: Law

The Nationality of Corporate Investors under International Investment Law

The Nationality of Corporate Investors under International Investment Law

Despite nationality being one of the essential conditions for investor access to international investment law protection, its meaning remains ambiguous in international investment law (IIL) for the most regular beneficiaries of the ...

Author: Anil Yilmaz Vastardis

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781509933617

Category: Law

Page: 308

View: 267

This monograph offers a detailed and distinctive analysis of corporate nationality under international investment law, covering the ICSID Convention and the investment treaty framework. It takes the reader back to the basics, threading through the concepts of jurisdiction, nationality, and corporate personality to give a clear context to the discussion of corporate nationality under international investment law, at a time when international investment is dominated by multinational business enterprises operating in a globalised economy. The book examines different understandings of corporate personality and nationality under a selection of jurisdictions and public international law. It also offers an in-depth analysis of approaches found in ICSID arbitral awards and in investment treaty practice, distilling the problematic areas and discussing the impacts of the areas of concern. It evaluates the techniques developed to address problems and puts forward suggestions for effective and balanced solutions to the questions of corporate nationality and personal scope of investment protection.
Categories: Law