This text provides a comprehensive introduction to the physical principles and design of particle detectors, covering all major detector types in use today.
Author: Dan Green
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This text provides a comprehensive introduction to the physical principles and design of particle detectors, covering all major detector types in use today. Emphasis is placed on explaining the physical principles behind particle detection, showing how those principles are best utilised in real detectors. The book will be of interest and value to undergraduates, graduates and researchers in both particle and nuclear physics. Exercises and detailed further reading lists are included.
New ideas and concepts in the development of particle detectors have often
been the prerequisites for important experiments that led to discoveries or new
perceptions in particle and astroparticle physics. Therefore the physical
principles and ...
Author: Hermann Kolanoski
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This book describes the fundamentals of particle detectors as well as their applications. Detector development is an important part of nuclear, particle and astroparticle physics, and through its applications in radiation imaging, it paves the way for advancements in the biomedical and materials sciences. Knowledge in detector physics is one of the required skills of an experimental physicist in these fields. The breadth of knowledge required for detector development comprises many areas of physics and technology, starting from interactions of particles with matter, gas- and solid-state physics, over charge transport and signal development, to elements of microelectronics. The book's aim is to describe the fundamentals of detectors and their different variants and implementations as clearly as possible and as deeply as needed for a thorough understanding. While this comprehensive opus contains all the materials taught in experimental particle physics lectures or modules addressing detector physics at the Master's level, it also goes well beyond these basic requirements. This is an essential text for students who want to deepen their knowledge in this field. It is also a highly useful guide for lecturers and scientists looking for a starting point for detector development work.
Abstract: High performance particle detectors are needed for fundamental research in high energy physics in the exploration of the Higgs boson, dark matter, anti-matter, gravitational waves and proof of the standard model, which will extend ...
Abstract: High performance particle detectors are needed for fundamental research in high energy physics in the exploration of the Higgs boson, dark matter, anti-matter, gravitational waves and proof of the standard model, which will extend the understanding of our Universe. Future particle detectors should have ultrahigh radiation hardness, low power consumption, high spatial resolution and fast signal response. Unfortunately, some of these properties are counter-influencing for the conventional silicon drift detectors (SDDs), so that they cannot be optimized simultaneously. In this paper, the main issues of conventional SDDs have been analyzed, and a novel core–shell detector design based on micro- and nano-structures etched into Si-wafers is proposed. It is expected to simultaneously reach ultrahigh radiation hardness, low power consumption, fast signal response and high spatial resolution down to the sub-micrometer range, which will probably meet the requirements for the most powerful particle accelerators in the near future. A prototype core–shell detector was fabricated using modern silicon nanotechnology and the functionality was tested using electron-beam-induced current measurements. Such a high performance detector will open many new applications in extreme radiation environments such as high energy physics, astrophysics, high resolution (bio-) imaging and crystallography, which will push these fields beyond their current boundaries.
[Landua96] R. Landua, New Results in Spectroscopy, 28th International
Conference on High Energy Physics, Z. Ajduk and A.K. Wroblewski, eds., World
... [Lint87] V.A.J. van Lint, The physics of radiation damage in particle detectors,
Author: Rudolf K. Bock
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This BriefBook is a much extended glossary or a much condensed handbook, depending on the way one looks at it. It deals with detectors in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The authors describe, in encyclopedic format, the physics, the application, and the analysis of data from these detectors. Ample reference is made to the published literature. An introduction for newcomers, a reference for scientists.
Proceedings of the International School of Physics “Enrico Fermi” Course CLXXV
“Radiation and Particle Detectors”, edited by S. Bertolucci, U. Bottigli and P. Oliva
(IOS, Amsterdam; SIF, Bologna) DOI 10.3254/978-1-60750-630-0-79 The CMS ...
Author: S. Bertolucci
Publisher: IOS Press
Contains the papers from the workshop 'Radiation and Particle Detectors', organized by the International School of Physics, and held in Varenna in July 2009.
All the experimental discoveries that underpin our understanding of particle physics rely on particle detectors, so a good ... The complexity of particle detectors has grown enormously from very simple beginnings to the very
powerful detector ...
Author: Tony Weidberg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This text gives an introduction to particle physics at a level accessible to advanced undergraduate students. It is based on lectures given to 4th year physics students over a number of years, and reflects the feedback from the students. The aim is to explain the theoretical and experimental basis of the Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics with the simplest mathematical treatment possible. All the experimental discoveries that led to the understanding of the SM relied on particle detectors and most of them required advanced particle accelerators. A unique feature of this book is that it gives a serious introduction to the fundamental accelerator and detector physics, which is currently only available in advanced graduate textbooks. The mathematical tools that are required such as group theory are covered in one chapter. A modern treatment of the Dirac equation is given in which the free particle Dirac equation is seen as being equivalent to the Lorentz transformation. The idea of generating the SM interactions from fundamental gauge symmetries is explained. The core of the book covers the SM. The tools developed are used to explain its theoretical basis and a clear discussion is given of the critical experimental evidence which underpins it. A thorough account is given of quark flavour and neutrino oscillations based on published experimental results, including some from running experiments. A simple introduction to the Higgs sector of the SM is given. This explains the key idea of how spontaneous symmetry breaking can generate particle masses without violating the underlying gauge symmetry. A key feature of this book is that it gives an accessible explanation of the discovery of the Higgs boson, including the advanced statistical techniques required. The final chapter gives an introduction to LHC physics beyond the standard model and the techniques used in searches for new physics. There is an outline of the shortcomings of the SM and a discussion of possible solutions and future experiments to resolve these outstanding questions.
... of particle physics and astrophysics on some relevant subjects like grand
unification of electromagnetic and weak forces, ... The potentiality of the newly
developed low temperature detectors like bolometers, superconducting tunnel
Author: G. Waysand
As demonstrated by the contributions in this volume, the domain of superconducting and low-temperature devices is in a rapidly expanding phase. Interactions between materials sciences, low-temperature physics, astrophysics, nuclear and particle physics have provided the incentive for new experiments, which could ultimately record such rare interactions as double beta decay, neutrino scattering, or collisions of the elusive dark matter halo particles. The theoretical and experimental improvements achieved during the last year have been impressive. Detection of 60 keV resolution with a non-zero spin material as a target seems therefore realizable in the near future. Similarly, impressive achievements on ballistic phonons detection and superheated superconducting detectors have been presented, together with reliable techniques for developing ultra low noise electronics required by these ambitious experiments. Apart from the contributions presented during the symposium, the two original papers by Niinikoski proposing the use of bolometers as particle detectors have been included in this volume. These papers, despite their current interest, have never been published before. The comprehensive style of the papers will appeal to specialists and non-specialists alike, in particular solid-state physicists will find the volume of considerable interest, as the field of materials research continues to benefit from the type of work presented here.
The expected physics reach of the LHCb experiment has recently been re -
evaluated , after changes in the detector geometry and using full detector
simulation and reconstruction . Both the trigger strategy and performance , as
well as the new ...
Author: Maura Barone
Publisher: World Scientific
Astroparticle and space physics -- Calorimetry -- High energy physics -- Medical applications -- New detectors and particle identification -- Open session on experimental results -- Radiation damage -- Tracker
This new method was discovered about the time when nuclear emulsion was
playing a less and less important role in the field of nuclear physics . Perhaps the
most important first application of the plastic detector to the study of particle physics ...
Author: Fukui Katsura
This report covers the fundamental techniques for handling plastic detectors. It also covers the method for analyzing the events recorded in the detectors. As in the previous report on the nuclear emulsion technique, K. Fukui (1972), the information is limited to the practical techniques that the laboratory technicians should know. Included are descriptions on various kinds of plastic materials, preparation for the exposure, irradiation method, scanning, and analysis of the events.
For the progress in experimental particle physics the development of accelerators
is an essential but insufficient requirement. Another prerequisite is the
development of experimental methods, creation of more and more sophisticated detectors ...
Author: O. M. Boyarkin
Publisher: Nova Publishers
In this textbook, all known fundamental interactions are considered and the main directions of their unification are reviewed. The basic theoretical ideas and experiments, which permit establishing a quark-lepton level of matter structure are discussed. A general scheme for the theory of interacting fields with the help of the local gauge invariance principle is given. This scheme is used for presentation of the basic aspects of the quantum chromodynamics and electroweak theory of Weinberg-Salam-Glashow. Principles of operation and designs of accelerators, neutrino telescopes, and elementary particle detectors are considered. The modern theory of the Universe evolution is described.
Development of Detectors for Particle Physics The remarkable developments in
elementary particle physics have been possible, on the one hand, with the
development of higher and higher energy accelerators and methods for
increasing the ...
Author: M.K. Sundaresan
Publisher: CRC Press
Literally thousands of elementary particles have been discovered over the last 50 years, their properties measured, relationships systematized, and existence and behavior explained in a myriad of cleverly constructed theories. As the field has grown so impressively, so has its jargon. Until now, scientists in other fields have had no single resource from which they can quickly reference an idea, acronym, or term and find an accessible definition and explanation. The Handbook of Particle Physics fills that void. This unique work contains, in encyclopedic form, terms of interest in particle physics, including its peculiar jargon. It covers the experimental and theoretical techniques of particle physics along with terms from the closely related fields of astrophysics and cosmology. Designed primarily for non-specialists with a basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and relativity, the entries preserve a degree of rigor by providing the relevant technical and mathematical details. Clear and engaging prose, numerous figures, and historical overviews complement the handbook's convenience both as a reference and as an invitation into the fascinating world of particle physics.
Richard Feynman, Feynman Lectures on Physics 3.1 Particles Traveling through
Atoms All detectors are made of atoms, and an understanding of detectors
depends almost entirely on the electromagnetic interaction of charged particles
with a ...
Author: John Hauptman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Starting from our current understanding of the topic, this advanced textbook describes experimental detectors and their capabilities in measuring detectable stable particles, before explaining the benefits of a new powerful collider detector that combines new technologies --
The response of the detectors as radiation detector for y - rays and a particles has
been investigated . The response of ... been extensively used as nuclear particle detectors in high energy physics experiments since a quite long time [ 1 , 2 ] .
Dealing with such small signals is one of the main challenges in designing detectors for nuclear physics and particle physics. Photomultiplier tubes and gas
amplification detectors such as Geiger tubes are often used because of their built
Author: Stefaan Tavernier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
I have been teaching courses on experimental techniques in nuclear and particle physics to master students in physics and in engineering for many years. This book grew out of the lecture notes I made for these students. The physics and engineering students have rather different expectations of what such a course should be like. I hope that I have nevertheless managed to write a book that can satisfy the needs of these different target audiences. The lectures themselves, of course, need to be adapted to the needs of each group of students. An engineering student will not qu- tion a statement like “the velocity of the electrons in atoms is ?1% of the velocity of light”, a physics student will. Regarding units, I have written factors h and c explicitly in all equations throughout the book. For physics students it would be preferable to use the convention that is common in physics and omit these constants in the equations, but that would probably be confusing for the engineering students. Physics students tend to be more interested in theoretical physics courses. However, physics is an experimental science and physics students should und- stand how experiments work, and be able to make experiments work.
Particle Detectors and Accelerators To observe subatomic particles thai are very
small and can travel at speeds approaching the speed of light requires special
instruments. Particle detectors are used for observing at the subatomic level and
Author: Richard Leroy Myers
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
An excellent introduction to the basics of physics from antiquity to the modern era, including motion, work, energy, heat, matter, light, electricity, quantum & nuclear physics.
These devices provided the first high-resolution detectors for energy
measurement and were quickly adopted in nuclear physics research for charged particle detection and gamma spectroscopy. In more recent years, however,
Author: William R. Leo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
A treatment of the experimental techniques and instrumentation most often used in nuclear and particle physics experiments as well as in various other experiments, providing useful results and formulae, technical know-how and informative details. This second edition has been revised, while sections on Cherenkov radiation and radiation protection have been updated and extended.
The book surveys the many aspects of accelerator physics andnot only explains how accelerators work, but also why the underlying physics leads to a particular choice of design or technique, and points out the limitations of the technology.
Author: Klaus Wille (prof.)
Publisher: Clarendon Press
The complex technology of particle accelerators is based upon a series of often rather simple physical concepts. This comprehensive introduction to the subject focuses on providing a deep physical understanding of these key ideas. The book surveys the many aspects of accelerator physics andnot only explains how accelerators work, but also why the underlying physics leads to a particular choice of design or technique, and points out the limitations of the technology. The clear and thorough mathematical treatment always emphasizes the physical principles described by the equations, andincludes a range of calculations which develop a genuine feeling for the quantities and concepts involved.
The writing concentrates on examples of detectors used in particle physics
experiments – in the High Energy Physics (HEP). It also describes the working
principle of silicon sensors as particle detectors, together with an explanation of
Author: Frank Hartmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
In the post era of the Z and W discovery, after the observation of Jets at UA1 and UA2 at CERN, John Ellis visioned at a HEP conference at Lake Tahoe, California in 1983 “To proceed with high energy particle physics, one has to tag the avour of the quarks!” This statement re ects the need for a highly precise tracking device, being able to resolve secondary and tertiary vertices within high-particle densities. Since the d- tance between the primary interaction point and the secondary vertex is proportional tothelifetimeoftheparticipatingparticle,itisanexcellentquantitytoidentifypar- cle avour in a very fast and precise way. In colliding beam experiments this method was applied especially to tag the presence of b quarks within particle jets. It was rst introduced in the DELPHI experiment at LEP but soon followed by all collider - periments to date. The long expected t quark discovery was possible mainly with the help of the CDF silicon vertex tracker, providing the b quark information. In the beginning of the 21st century the new LHC experiments are beginning to take 2 shape. CMS with its 206m of silicon area is perfectly suited to cope with the high luminosity environment. Even larger detectors are envisioned for the far future, like the SiLC project for the International Linear Collider. Silicon sensors matured from small 1in. single-sided devices to large 6in. double-sided, double metal detectors and to 6in. single-sided radiation hard sensors.
Chapter 11 Detector applications AŚ was noted in Chapter 1 , the various forms
of particle detector were initially developed largely for investigations in nuclear ,
cosmic and high energy physics . Once they had been developed to a mature
Author: R S Gilmore
Publisher: CRC Press
This book provides a summary of the state of science in teh field of single particle detection and measurement. The text delineates between those low performance detectors, capable of registering only a large number of particles and those complex, highly designed systems capable of detecting and measuring single interactions or events. The author describes the problems associated with detection, measurement and subsequent interpretation of such quantum processes. He also evolves the subject from its roots in nuclear and particle physics into latter day applications such as probes for investigation of materials and objects. The different nature and use of high-energy particles compared with photons is highlighted.