The Scaling of Relaxation Processes

The Scaling of Relaxation Processes

This volume within 'Advances in Dielectrics' summarizes this knowledge and discusses it with respect to the existing and often competing theoretical concepts.

Author: Friedrich Kremer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319727066

Category: Science

Page: 409

View: 418

The dielectric properties especially of glassy materials are nowadays explored at widely varying temperatures and pressures without any gap in the spectral range from μHz up to the Infrared, thus covering typically 20 decades or more. This extraordinary span enables to trace the scaling and the mutual interactions of relaxation processes in detail, e.g. the dynamic glass transition and secondary relaxations, but as well far infrared vibrations, like the Boson peak. Additionally the evolution of intra-molecular interactions in the course of the dynamic glass transition is also well explored by (Fourier Transform) Infrared Spectroscopy. This volume within 'Advances in Dielectrics' summarizes this knowledge and discusses it with respect to the existing and often competing theoretical concepts.
Categories: Science

Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy

Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy

In the THz regime a further molecular process is observed, ... will be addressed: (i) what is the scaling of relaxation processes with temperature, ...

Author: Friedrich Kremer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642561207

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 729

View: 358

Both an introductory course to broadband dielectric spectroscopy and a monograph describing recent dielectric contributions to current topics, this book is the first to cover the topic and has been hotly awaited by the scientific community.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Encyclopedic Handbook of Emulsion Technology

Encyclopedic Handbook of Emulsion Technology

A detailed analysis and estimations of the relaxation - time values show ( 5 , 96 ) the following hierarchy of processes on the time scale : the relaxation ...

Author: Johan Sjoblom

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420029584

Category: Science

Page: 760

View: 886

A discussion of fundamental characteristics, theories and applications for liquid-liquid colloidal dispersions. It profiles experimental and traditional measurement techniques in a variety of emulsified systems, including rheology, nuclear magnetic resonance, dielectric spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, video enhanced microscopy, and conductivity.
Categories: Science

Magnetic Nanoparticle Assemblies

Magnetic Nanoparticle Assemblies

In order to verify the validity of this model, we tried to scale the relaxation data of the referred samples. The procedure used for this purpose consists ...

Author: Kalliopi N. Trohidou

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9789814411974

Category: Science

Page: 306

View: 119

Magnetic nanoparticles with diameters in the range of a few nanometers are today at the cutting edge of modern technology and innovation because of their use in numerous applications ranging from engineering to biomedicine. A great deal of scientific interest has been focused on the functionalization of magnetic nanoparticle assemblies. The understanding of interparticle interactions is necessary to clarify the physics of these assemblies and their use in the development of high-performance magnetic materials. This book reviews prominent research studies on the static and dynamic magnetic properties of nanoparticle assemblies, gathering together experimental and computational techniques in an effort to reveal their optimized magnetic properties for biomedical use and as ultra-high magnetic recording media.
Categories: Science

Scaling and Disordered Systems

Scaling and Disordered Systems

It is most likely that the relaxation time sets not only the frequency range of the relaxation process but determines its scaling properties also .

Author: Fereydoon Family

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9810248385

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 334

View: 243

Investigation of the fractal and scaling properties of disordered systems has recently become a focus of great interest in research. Disordered or amorphous materials, like glasses, polymers, gels, colloids, ceramic superconductors and random alloys or magnets, do not have a homogeneous microscopic structure. The microscopic environment varies randomly from site to site in the system and this randomness adds to the complexity and the richness of the properties of these materials. A particularly challenging aspect of random systems is their dynamical behavior. Relaxation in disordered systems generally follows an unusual time-dependent trajectory. Applications of scaling and fractal concepts in disordered systems have become a broad area of interdisciplinary research, involving studies of the physics, chemistry, mathematics, biology and engineering aspects of random systems. This book is intended for specialists as well as graduate and postdoctoral students working in condensed-matter or statistical physics. It provides state-of-the-art information on the latest developments in this important and timely topic. The book is divided into three parts: Part I deals with critical phenomena, Part II is devoted to discussion of slow dynamics and Part III involves the application of scaling concepts to random systems. The effects of disorder at the mesoscopic scale as well as the latest results on the dynamical properties of disordered systems are presented. In particular, recent developments in static and dynamic scaling theories and applications of fractal concepts to disordered systems are discussed.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Self Organized Criticality

Self Organized Criticality

The exponent z relates spatial scale r to time scale t through t ~ r ? ... the average number of updates or time steps th involved in a relaxation process ...

Author: Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521483719

Category: Science

Page: 153

View: 497

A clear and concise introduction to this new, cross-disciplinary field.
Categories: Science

Scale Invariance Interfaces and Non Equilibrium Dynamics

Scale Invariance  Interfaces  and Non Equilibrium Dynamics

When on one or more sites the state variable Nij exceeds the threshold value k, the time evolution stops, and relaxation processes according to Eq. (12) ...

Author: Alan McKane

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781489914217

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 767

The NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Scale Invariance, Interfaces and Non Equilibrium Dynamics" was held at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Cambridge, UK from 20-30 June 1994. The topics discussed at the Institute were all concerned with the origin and nature of complex structures found far from equilibrium. Examples ranged from reaction diffusion systems and hydrodynamics through to surface growth due to deposition. A common theme was that of scale invariance due to the self-similarity of the underly ing structures. The topics that were covered can be broadly classified as pattern for mation (theoretical, computational and experimental aspects), the non-equilibrium dynamics of the growth of interfaces and other manifolds, coarsening phenomena, generic scale invariance in driven systems and the concept of self-organized critical ity. The main feature of the Institute was the four one-hour-Iong lectures given each day by invited speakers. In addition to thirty-seven of these lectures, two contributed lectures were also given. The many questions that were asked after the lectures attested to the excitement and interest that the lecturers succeeded in generating amongst the students. In addition to the discussions initiated by lectures, an im portant component of the meeting were the poster sessions, where participants were able to present their own work, which took place on three of the afternoons. The list of titles given at the end of these proceedings gives some idea of the range and scope of these posters.
Categories: Science

Dynamic Light Scattering

Dynamic Light Scattering

If the fundamental relaxation rate can be identified then scaling permits characterization of the relaxation processes in dynamical regimes where the ...

Author: R. Pecora

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461323891

Category: Science

Page: 420

View: 445

In the twenty years since their inception, modern dynamic light-scattering techniques have become increasingly sophisticated, and their applications have grown exceedingly diverse. Applications of the techniques to problems in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and fluid mechanics have prolifer ated. It is probably no longer possible for one or two authors to write a monograph to cover in depth the advances in scattering techniques and the main areas in which they have made a major impact. This volume, which we expect to be the first of aseries, presents reviews of selected specialized areas by renowned experts. It makes no attempt to be comprehensive; it emphasizes a body of related applications to polymeric, biological, and colloidal systems, and to critical phenomena. The well-known monographs on dynamic light scattering by Berne and Pecora and by Chu were published almost ten years ago. They provided comprehensive treatments of the general principles of dynamic light scat tering and gave introductions to a wide variety of applications, but natu rally they could not treat the new applications and advances in older ones that have arisen in the last decade. The new applications include studies of interacting particles in solution (Chapter 4); scaling approaches to the dynamics of polymers, including polymers in semidilute solution (Chapter 5); the use of both Fabry-Perot interferometry and photon correlation spectroscopy to study bulk polymers (Chapter 6); studies of micelIes and microemulsions (Chapter 8); studies of polymer gels (Chapter 9).
Categories: Science

Dynamical Heterogeneities in Glasses Colloids and Granular Media

Dynamical Heterogeneities in Glasses  Colloids  and Granular Media

optimal relaxation mechanism and that other relaxation processes could be much faster, avoiding the super-Arrhenius scaling.

Author: Ludovic Berthier

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191621918

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 270

Most of the solid materials we use in everyday life, from plastics to cosmetic gels exist under a non-crystalline, amorphous form: they are glasses. Yet, we are still seeking a fundamental explanation as to what glasses really are and to why they form. In this book, we survey the most recent theoretical and experimental research dealing with glassy physics, from molecular to colloidal glasses and granular media. Leading experts in this field present broad and original perspectives on one of the deepest mysteries of condensed matter physics, with an emphasis on the key role played by heterogeneities in the dynamics of glassiness.
Categories: Science

Euromat 99 Microstructures Mechanical Properties and Processes

Euromat 99  Microstructures  Mechanical Properties and Processes

If we assume that the scaling relation Eq . ( 1 ) remains valid also during the relaxation process , the boundary length and therewith ...

Author: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527301224

Category: Science

Page: 418

View: 505

The relation between microstructures and mechanical properties has always been a challenge for materials science. Modelling the formation, properties and long term stability of microstructures is one of the most impressive and promising advances of modern materials science. This book presents recent advances and challenges in this fast evolving cross disciplinary field. It addresses applications of classical physical metallurgy, and the need for new modelling approaches, both on the analytical viewpoint and on the simulation side.
Categories: Science

Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials

Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials

At the very least they give a sense of the scaling involved in spreading the relaxation process around the characteristic relaxation frequency or ...

Author: Safa Kasap

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319489339

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1536

View: 477

The second, updated edition of this essential reference book provides a wealth of detail on a wide range of electronic and photonic materials, starting from fundamentals and building up to advanced topics and applications. Its extensive coverage, with clear illustrations and applications, carefully selected chapter sequencing and logical flow, makes it very different from other electronic materials handbooks. It has been written by professionals in the field and instructors who teach the subject at a university or in corporate laboratories. The Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials, second edition, includes practical applications used as examples, details of experimental techniques, useful tables that summarize equations, and, most importantly, properties of various materials, as well as an extensive glossary. Along with significant updates to the content and the references, the second edition includes a number of new chapters such as those covering novel materials and selected applications. This handbook is a valuable resource for graduate students, researchers and practicing professionals working in the area of electronic, optoelectronic and photonic materials.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Hypersonic Flow Research

Hypersonic Flow Research

various rate processes involved still remains a major difficulty. ... be maintained for only one relaxation process at other than flight density or scale.

Author: F.R. Riddell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780323142625

Category: Transportation

Page: 768

View: 783

Progress in Astronautics and Rocketry, Volume 7: Hypersonic Flow Research compiles papers presented at a conference on hypersonics held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in August 1961. This book discusses the low Reynolds number effects, chemical kinetics effects, inviscid flow calculations, and experimental techniques relating to the problems in acquiring an understanding of hypersonic flow. The structure and composition of hypersonic wakes with attendant complex chemical kinetic effects is only briefly mentioned. This text consists of five parts. Parts A to C comprise of theoretical papers on the problems of calculating flow fields at hypersonic speeds. The experimental techniques that are of immediate practical interest in view of the difficulty of flight testing are discussed in Parts D and E. This publication is beneficial to engineers involved in advanced design problems.
Categories: Transportation

Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods in Science and Engineering

Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods in Science and Engineering

Thus the form of both the linear exponential and Kohlrausch relaxation should be independent of scale factors. This lends credibility to the choices of W ...

Author: G. Erickson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401090544

Category: Mathematics

Page: 440

View: 438

This volume has its origin in the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Workshops on "Maximum-Entropy and Bayesian Methods in Applied Statistics", held at the University of Wyoming, August 5-8, 1985, and at Seattle University, August 5-8, 1986, and August 4-7, 1987. It was anticipated that the proceedings of these workshops would be combined, so most of the papers were not collected until after the seventh workshop. Because most of the papers in this volume are in the nature of advancing theory or solving specific problems, as opposed to status reports, it is believed that the contents of this volume will be of lasting interest to the Bayesian community. The workshop was organized to bring together researchers from different fields to critically examine maximum-entropy and Bayesian methods in science and engineering as well as other disciplines. Some of the papers were chosen specifically to kindle interest in new areas that may offer new tools or insight to the reader or to stimulate work on pressing problems that appear to be ideally suited to the maximum-entropy or Bayesian method. These workshops and their proceedings could not have been brought to their final form without the support or help of a number of people.
Categories: Mathematics

Multi scale Dynamical Processes in Space and Astrophysical Plasmas

Multi scale Dynamical Processes in Space and Astrophysical Plasmas

... almost always occur in a multi-scale manner, while the driving mechanisms often include energy accumulation, free energy excited relaxation processes, ...

Author: Manfred P. Leubner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642304415

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 876

Magnetized plasmas in the universe exhibit complex dynamical behavior over a huge range of scales. The fundamental mechanisms of energy transport, redistribution and conversion occur at multiple scales. The driving mechanisms often include energy accumulation, free-energy-excited relaxation processes, dissipation and self-organization. The plasma processes associated with energy conversion, transport and self-organization, such as magnetic reconnection, instabilities, linear and nonlinear waves, wave-particle interactions, dynamo processes, turbulence, heating, diffusion and convection represent fundamental physical effects. They demonstrate similar dynamical behavior in near-Earth space, on the Sun, in the heliosphere and in astrophysical environments. 'Multi-scale Dynamical Processes in Space and Astrophysical Plasmas' presents the proceedings of the International Astrophysics Forum Alpbach 2011. The contributions discuss the latest advances in the exploration of dynamical behavior in space plasmas environments, including comprehensive approaches to theoretical, experimental and numerical aspects. The book will appeal to researchers and students in the fields of physics, space and astrophysics, solar physics, geophysics and planetary science.
Categories: Science

Thermal Fluctuations And Relaxation Processes In Nanomagnets

Thermal Fluctuations And Relaxation Processes In Nanomagnets

We remark that in developing his theory of the magnetization relaxation for superparamagnets (classical spins) Brown obviously used by analogy ideas ...

Author: William T Coffey

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789811217296

Category: Science

Page: 708

View: 315

Presenting in a coherent and accessible fashion current results in nanomagnetism, this book constitutes a comprehensive, rigorous and readable account, from first principles of the classical and quantum theories underlying the dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles subject to thermal fluctuations.Starting with the Larmor-like equation for a giant spin, both the stochastic (Langevin) equation of motion of the magnetization and the associated evolution (Fokker-Planck) equation for the distribution function of the magnetization orientations of ferromagnetic nanoparticles (classical spins) in a heat bath are developed along with their solution (using angular momentum theory) for arbitrary magnetocrystalline-Zeeman energy. Thus, observables such as the magnetization reversal time, relaxation functions, dynamic susceptibilities, etc. are calculated and compared with the predictions of classical escape rate theory including in the most general case spin-torque-transfer. Regarding quantum effects, which are based on the reduced spin density matrix evolution equation in Hilbert space as is described at length, they are comprehensively treated via the Wigner-Stratonovich formulation of the quantum mechanics of spins via their orientational quasi-probability distributions on a classically meaningful representation space. Here, as suggested by the relevant Weyl symbols, the latter is the configuration space of the polar angles. Hence, one is led, by mapping the reduced density matrix equation onto that space, to a master equation for the quasi-probability evolution akin to the Fokker-Planck equation which may be solved in a similar way. Thus, one may study in a classical-like manner the evolution of observables with spin number ranging from an elementary spin to molecular clusters to the classical limit, viz. a nanoparticle. The entire discussion hinges on the one-to-one correspondence between polarization operators in Hilbert space and the spherical harmonics allied to concepts of spin coherent states long familiar in quantum optics.Catering for the reader with only a passing knowledge of statistical and quantum mechanics, the book serves as an introductory text on a complicated subject where the literature is remarkably sparse.
Categories: Science

Disorder Effects on Relaxational Processes

Disorder Effects on Relaxational Processes

... systems takes place on an extraordinary wide time scale ranging from about 107* to 10's and longer: the dynamic glass transition (or the o-relaxation) ...

Author: Ranko Richert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642785764

Category: Science

Page: 754

View: 873

The field of non-crystalline materials has seen the emergence of many challeng ing problems during its long history. In recent years, the interest in polymeric and biological disordered matter has stimulated new activities which in turn have enlarged the organic and inorganic glass community. The current research fields and recent progress have extended our knowledge of the rich phenomenol ogy of glassy systems, where the role of disorder is fundamental for the underlying microscopic dynamics. In addition, despite the lack of a unified theory, many interesting theoretical models have recently evolved. The present volume offers the reader a collection of topics representing the current state in the understanding of disorder effects as well as a survey of the basic problems and phenomena involved. The task of compiling a book devoted to disordered systems has benefited much from a seminar organized by the W.-E. Heraeus Foundation in Bad Honnef in April 1992, where we had the opportunity to discuss the project with most of the authors. Here we wish to thank the Heraeus Foundation for their support, and the authors and Springer-Verlag, especially Dr. Marion Hertel, for the pleasant cooperation.
Categories: Science

Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science

Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science

Some of the double layer relaxation processes outlined in sec. 4.4a depend on the particle radius a, others do not. The scaling of some of these with a is ...

Author: J. Lyklema

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080454399

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 692

View: 337

Volume IV (2005) covers preparation, characterization of colloids, stability and interaction between pairs of particles, and in concentrated systems, their rheology and dynamics. This volume contains two chapters written, or co-authored by J. Lyklema and edited contributions by A.P.Philipse, H.P. van Leeuwen, M. Minor, A. Vrij, R.Tuinier and T. van Vliet. The volume is logically followed by Vol V, but is equally valuable as a stand alone reference. * Combined with part V, this volume completes the prestigious series Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science * Together with volume V this book provides a general physical chemical background to colloid science * Covers all aspects of particle colloids
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Fractals Diffusion and Relaxation in Disordered Complex Systems

Fractals  Diffusion  and Relaxation in Disordered Complex Systems

Fractals, Diffusion and Relaxation in Disordered Complex Systems is a special guest-edited, two-part volume of Advances in Chemical Physics that continues to report recent advances with significant, up-to-date chapters by internationally ...

Author: Yuri P. Kalmykov

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470037133

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 353

Fractals, Diffusion and Relaxation in Disordered Complex Systems is a special guest-edited, two-part volume of Advances in Chemical Physics that continues to report recent advances with significant, up-to-date chapters by internationally recognized researchers.
Categories: Science

Phase Transitions and Self Organization in Electronic and Molecular Networks

Phase Transitions and Self Organization in Electronic and Molecular Networks

Therefore, the separation of time-scales in the relaxation dynamics of a ... with the life time exceeding the time-scale of the “fast” relaxation processes.

Author: J.C. Phillips

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306471131

Category: Science

Page: 454

View: 521

Advances in nanoscale science show that the properties of many materials are dominated by internal structures. In molecular cases, such as window glass and proteins, these internal structures obviously have a network character. However, in many partly disordered electronic materials, almost all attempts at understanding are based on traditional continuum models. This workshop focuses first on the phase diagrams and phase transitions of materials known to be composed of molecular networks. These phase properties characteristically contain remarkable features, such as intermediate phases that lead to reversibility windows in glass transitions as functions of composition. These features arise as a result of self-organization of the internal structures of the intermediate phases. In the protein case, this self-organization is the basis for protein folding. The second focus is on partly disordered electronic materials whose phase properties exhibit the same remarkable features. In fact, the phenomenon of High Temperature Superconductivity, discovered by Bednorz and Mueller in 1986, and now the subject of 75,000 research papers, also arises from such an intermediate phase. More recently discovered electronic phenomena, such as giant magnetoresistance, also are made possible only by the existence of such special phases. This book gives an overview of the methods and results obtained so far by studying the characteristics and properties of nanoscale self-organized networks. It demonstrates the universality of the network approach over a range of disciplines, from protein folding to the newest electronic materials.
Categories: Science

Advances in Solid State Physics

Advances in Solid State Physics

This scaling indicates anomalous inelastic relaxation processes to be present . It is demonstrated that the latter can be induced by quantum impurities with ...

Author: Bernhard Kramer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540401504

Category: Science

Page: 912

View: 172

Volume 43 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of most of the plenary and invited lectures of the Spring Meeting of the Condensed Matter Physics section of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft held from March 24 to 28, 2003 in Dresden, Germany. Many of the topical talks given at the numerous and very lively symposia are also included. They covered an extremely interesting selection of timely subjects. Thus the book truly reflects the status of the field of solid state physics in 2003, and explains its attractiveness, not only in Germany but also internationally.
Categories: Science