Basics of the Solar Wind

Basics of the Solar Wind

The topics are treated at various levels of difficulty both qualitatively and quantitatively. This book will appeal to graduate students and researchers in earth and atmospheric sciences, and astrophysics.

Author: Nicole Meyer-Vernet

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139461559

Category: Science

Page:

View: 362

The Sun continually ejects matter into space, blowing a huge bubble of supersonic plasma. This solar wind bathes the whole solar system and shapes all planetary environments. The growth of space technology has considerably increased our knowledge of this medium. This 2007 book presents an introduction to the subject, starting with basic principles and including all the latest advances from space exploration and theory. It contains a short introduction to plasma physics and discusses the structure of the solar interior and atmosphere, the production of solar wind and its perturbations. It explains the objects of the Solar System, from dust to comets and planets, and their interaction with the solar wind. The final sections explore the astrophysical point of view. The topics are treated at various levels of difficulty both qualitatively and quantitatively. This book will appeal to graduate students and researchers in earth and atmospheric sciences, and astrophysics.
Categories: Science

Solar Wind Ten

Solar Wind Ten

The Tenth Solar Wind conference describes the latest results in the physics of the outer solar atmosphere, the solar wind, and the interplanetary medium which together comprise the heliosphere.

Author: Marco Velli

Publisher: American Institute of Physics

ISBN: 0735401489

Category: Science

Page: 860

View: 609

The Tenth Solar Wind conference describes the latest results in the physics of the outer solar atmosphere, the solar wind, and the interplanetary medium which together comprise the heliosphere. The conference brought together researchers studying the sun and its influence on the earth’s space environment both from an experimental and theoretical point of view. The effect of the solar magnetic field in shaping and accelerating the solar wind throughout the solar cycle, via coronal heating and coronal mass ejections was described in unprecedented clarity and breadth, thanks to both satellite experiments and numerical modelling. The conference proceedings is of interest to researchers in space science and the geomagnetic effects of solar activity, plasma physicists and astrophysicists as well as other scientists interested in the life of our mother star.
Categories: Science

The Solar Wind

The Solar Wind

Author: Eric Tsang

Publisher:

ISBN: 086332617X

Category:

Page: 134

View: 894

Categories:

The Solar Wind and the Earth

The Solar Wind and the Earth

As a star, the sun is continuously emitting an enormous amount of energy 33 into space, up to as much as 3. 9 X 10 erg/ s. This energy emission consists of three modes.

Author: Syun-Ichi Akasofu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: STANFORD:36105030454750

Category: Science

Page: 315

View: 305

As a star, the sun is continuously emitting an enormous amount of energy 33 into space, up to as much as 3. 9 X 10 erg/ s. This energy emission consists of three modes. Almost all the energy is emitted in the form of the familiar black-body radiation, commonly called sunlight. Although the amount of energy emitted is small, the sun also emits x rays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and UV radiations, which are absorbed above the earth's stratosphere. These constitute the second mode of solar energy, separate from the black-body radiation that penetrates the lower layers of the atmosphere. The sun has another important mode of energy emission in which the energy is carried out by charged particles. These particles have a very wide range of energies, from less than I keY to more than I GeV. Because of this wide range, it is convenient to group them into two components: particles with energies greater than 10 keY and the lower-energy particles. The former are generally referred to as solar protons or solar cosmic rays; their emission is associated with active features on the sun. Their interaction with the atmosphere is similar to that of the x ray and EUV radiation. Low-energy particles constitute plasma, a gas of equal numbers of positive and negative particles. Actually, this plasma is the outermost part of the solar atmosphere, namely the corona, which blows out continuously . For this reason, the plasma flow is called the solar wind.
Categories: Science

The Sun the Solar Wind and the Heliosphere

The Sun  the Solar Wind  and the Heliosphere

This volume represents the state of the art of the science covered by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division IV: Solar Wind and Interplanetary Field.

Author: Mari Paz Miralles

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048197872

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 342

This volume represents the state of the art of the science covered by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division IV: Solar Wind and Interplanetary Field. It contains a collection of contributions by top experts addressing and reviewing a variety of topics included under the umbrella of the division. It covers subjects that extend from the interior of the Sun to the heliopause, and from the study of physical processes in the Sun and the solar wind plasma to space weather forecasts. The book is organized in 6 parts: the solar interior, the solar atmosphere, the heliosphere, heliophysical processes, radio emissions, and coordinated science in the Sun-Earth system. In addition, we highlight some of the results presented during the IAGA Division IV symposia in the 11th Scientific Assembly of IAGA in Sopron, Hungary, on 23-30 August 2009, which was planned simultaneously with this book.
Categories: Science

Coronal Holes and Solar Wind Acceleration

Coronal Holes and Solar Wind Acceleration

The primary topic of this Workshop was the impact of SOHO observations on our understanding of the nature and evolution of coronal holes and the acceleration and composition of the solar wind.

Author: John L. Kohl

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401591676

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 951

The SOHO-7 Workshop was held from 28 September through 1 October 1998 at the Asticou Inn in Northeast Harbor, Maine. The primary topic of this Workshop was the impact of SOHO observations on our understanding of the nature and evolution of coronal holes and the acceleration and composition of the solar wind. The presentations and discussions occasionally went beyond this topic to include the impact of the reported research on other solar structures and the heliosphere. SOHO (the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA, was launched in December 1995 and began its science operations during the first few months of 1996. To many solar and space physicists, it was a great advantage that SOHO began itscomprehensive look at the Sun during the 1996 solar minimum. The qualitatively simple two-phase corona, with polar coronal holes expanding into the high-speed solar wind, and a steady equatorial streamer belt related somehow to the stochastic slow-speed solar wind, allowed various SOHO diagnostics to be initiated with a reasonably well understoodcircumsolar geometry. The analysis of subsequentSOHO measurements made during the rising phase of solar cycle 23 will continue to benefit from what has been learned from the first two years of data.
Categories: Science

Coronal Expansion and Solar Wind

Coronal Expansion and Solar Wind

The present volume is an attempt to synthesize the solar wind observations and coronal expansion models from this decade of rapid development.

Author: A. J. Hundhausen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642654145

Category: Science

Page: 238

View: 970

Little more than ten years have passed since spaceprobe-borne instruments con clusively demonstrated the existence of the solar wind. These observations con firmed the basic validity of a theoretical model, first proposed by E. N. Parker, predicting a continuous, rapid expansion of the solar corona. The subsequent decade has seen a tremendous growth in both the breadth and sophistication of solar wind observations; the properties of the interplanetary plasma near the orbit of the earth are now known in great detail. The theory of the coronal ex pansion has also been highly refilled both in the sense of including additional physical processes, and of treating more realistic (time-dependent and non spheri cally-symmetric) coronal boundary conditions. The present volume is an attempt to synthesize the solar wind observations and coronal expansion models from this decade of rapid development. The ultimate goal is, of course, the interpretation of observed solar wind phenomena as the effects of basic physical processes occurring in the coronal and interplanetary plasma and as the natural manifestations of solar properties and structures. This approach implies an emphasis upon the "large-scale" features revealed by the observations. It requires extensive use of the concepts and methods of fluid mechanics.
Categories: Science

In the Solar Wind

In the Solar Wind

Author: Wendy Battin

Publisher: Doubleday Books

ISBN: 0385193858

Category: American poetry

Page: 69

View: 728

Categories: American poetry

Magnetic Fields in the Solar System

Magnetic Fields in the Solar System

This book addresses and reviews many of the still little understood questions related to the processes underlying planetary magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind.

Author: Hermann Lühr

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319642925

Category: Science

Page: 413

View: 343

This book addresses and reviews many of the still little understood questions related to the processes underlying planetary magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind. With focus on research carried out within the German Priority Program ”PlanetMag”, it also provides an overview of the most recent research in the field. Magnetic fields play an important role in making a planet habitable by protecting the environment from the solar wind. Without the geomagnetic field, for example, life on Earth as we know it would not be possible. And results from recent space missions to Mars and Venus strongly indicate that planetary magnetic fields play a vital role in preventing atmospheric erosion by the solar wind. However, very little is known about the underlying interaction between the solar wind and a planet’s magnetic field. The book takes a synergistic interdisciplinary approach that combines newly developed tools for data acquisition and analysis, computer simulations of planetary interiors and dynamos, models of solar wind interaction, measurement of ancient terrestrial rocks and meteorites, and laboratory investigations.
Categories: Science

Exploring the Solar Wind

Exploring the Solar Wind

This book consists of a selection of original papers of the leading scientists in the fields of Space and Planetary Physics, Solar and Space Plasma Physics with important contributions to the theory, modeling and experimental techniques of ...

Author: Marian Lazar

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9789535103394

Category: Science

Page: 474

View: 960

This book consists of a selection of original papers of the leading scientists in the fields of Space and Planetary Physics, Solar and Space Plasma Physics with important contributions to the theory, modeling and experimental techniques of the solar wind exploration. Its purpose is to provide the means for interested readers to become familiar with the current knowledge of the solar wind formation and elemental composition, the interplanetary dynamical evolution and acceleration of the charged plasma particles, and the guiding magnetic field that connects to the magnetospheric field lines and adjusts the effects of the solar wind on Earth. I am convinced that most of the research scientists actively working in these fields will find in this book many new and interesting ideas.
Categories: Science

Interball in the ISTP Program

Interball in the ISTP Program

This is followed by an up-to-date status report concerning ongoing studies of the solar wind, foreshock, bow shock, magnetopause, magnetotail, and ionosphere, with an emphasis on the observations made by the four Interball spacecraft.

Author: David Gary Sibeck

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401144872

Category: Science

Page: 294

View: 556

An up-to-date progress report on the current status of solar-terrestrial relation studies with an emphasis on observations by the Russian Interball spacecraft and the Czech Magion subsatellites. Papers in the volume describe the various spacecraft in the International Solar-Terrestrial Program and the research questions that they are being used to address. The emphasis is on correlative studies employing multiple instruments and multiple spacecraft. The book begins with a description of each spacecraft active in 1998 and describes the roles they can play in correlative studies. This is followed by an up-to-date status report concerning ongoing studies of the solar wind, foreshock, bow shock, magnetopause, magnetotail, and ionosphere, with an emphasis on the observations made by the four Interball spacecraft. Readership: Researchers and graduate students of space physics and astrophysics.
Categories: Science

Space Physics and Aeronomy Solar Physics and Solar Wind

Space Physics and Aeronomy  Solar Physics and Solar Wind

This comprehensive reference work covers the solar interior, magnetism and radiation, plasma heating and acceleration, the sun's atmosphere, and solar activity.

Author: Nour E. Raouafi

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119815488

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 338

A comprehensive view of our Sun at the start of a new era in solar and heliospheric physics Humans have been observing and studying our Sun for centuries, yet much is still unknown about the processes that drive its behavior. Thanks to a new generation of space missions and ground telescopes, we are poised to dramatically increase our understanding of the Sun and its environment. Solar Physics and Solar Wind explores advances in solar and heliospheric research over recent decades, as well as the challenges that remain. This comprehensive reference work covers the solar interior, magnetism and radiation, plasma heating and acceleration, the sun's atmosphere, and solar activity. Volume highlights include: Explanations for processes in the solar interior New insights on the solar wind The challenges of measuring the Sun's magnetic field and its radiative output Description of solar atmospheric phenomena such as spicules and jets New developments in understanding flares and coronal mass ejections Ongoing research into how the solar corona is heated The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals.
Categories: Science

Turbulence in the Solar Wind

Turbulence in the Solar Wind

This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective.

Author: Roberto Bruno

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331943439X

Category: Science

Page: 215

View: 973

This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in order to explain the transport of mass, momentum and energy during the expansion. Further, existing models are compared with direct observations in the heliosphere. The problem of self-similar and anomalous fluctuations in the solar wind is then addressed using tools provided by dynamical system theory and discussed on the basis of available models and observations. The book highlights observations of Yaglom’s law in solar wind turbulence, which is one of the most important findings in fully developed turbulence and directly related to the long-lasting and still unsolved problem of solar wind plasma heating. Lastly, it includes a short chapter dedicated to the kinetic range of fluctuations, which has recently been receiving more attention from the space plasma community, since this is inherently related to turbulent energy dissipation and consequent plasma heating. It particularly focuses on the nature and role of the fluctuations populating this frequency range, and discusses several model predictions and recent observational findings in this context.
Categories: Science

The Solar Wind

The Solar Wind

The solar wind is found to have a considerable effect on the lunar atmosphere. First, the calculated density of the lunar atmosphere is greatly reduced by collisions with protons in the solar wind.

Author: J. R. Herring

Publisher:

ISBN: NASA:31769000456866

Category: Solar wind

Page: 14

View: 858

"Parker's model of a spherically expanding corona, the "solar wind," is compared with D.E. Blackwell's observations of the 1954 minimum equatorial corona. A significant discrepancy is found between the predicted and the observed electron densities at distances from the sun greater than 20 solar radii. Blackwell's data are found to be consistent with a model in which the corona expands mostly within a disk less than 25 solar radii thick, lying within the sun's equatorial plane. The thickness of the disk as a function of distance from the sun is qualitatively explained in terms of magnetic pressure. The solar wind is found to have a considerable effect on the lunar atmosphere. First, the calculated density of the lunar atmosphere is greatly reduced by collisions with protons in the solar wind. If the flux of particles in this wind has the conventional values ranging between 10(exp 10) to 10(exp 11) per sq cm-sec, the calculations yield a lunar pressure of 10(exp -13) atmosphere of argon, in agreement with the value predicted by Elsmore and Whitfield on the basis of observations on the occultation of radio stars. Second, following a suggestion by Gold, it was found that the collisions of solar-wind protons with the lunar surface produce an atmosphere of cold neutral hydrogen with a density of 10(exp 5) per cu cm at the lunar surface. The density falls off at greater distances in accordance with the inverse-square law. Estimates indicate that the interaction of solar particles with the neutral hydrogen will produce an extended lunar ionosphere with a density of the order of 400 protons/cu cm in the vicinity of the moon."
Categories: Solar wind

Solar Wind Nine Proceedings of the Ninth International Solar Wind Conference

Solar Wind Nine  Proceedings of the Ninth International Solar Wind Conference

The Solar Wind Nine Conference was the ninth in the series of solar wind conferences established in 1964 by Dr. Marcia Neugebauer to provide a forum for the interaction between solar physicists and space physicists interested in the origin ...

Author: Shadia Rifai Habbal

Publisher: American Inst. of Physics

ISBN: 1563968657

Category: Science

Page: 895

View: 323

The Solar Wind Nine Conference was the ninth in the series of solar wind conferences established in 1964 by Dr. Marcia Neugebauer to provide a forum for the interaction between solar physicists and space physicists interested in the origin and evolution of the solar wind. One of the scientific goals of the conference was to reflect the importance of the synergistic interaction between theory, numerical modeling and simulations, in situ measurements and remote sensing observations, in the exploration of the solar wind. Indeed, the opportunity provided by the many concurrent missions Ulysses, Yohkoh, SOHO, TRACE, SPARTAN, WIND, and ACE, which probe the Sun and interplanetary space from different vantage points, provided very rich material for the contributions. The presentations included invited reviews and contributed talks as well as poster presentations. This conference took place almost 40 years after Parkers prediction of the existence of the solar wind.
Categories: Science

Magnetic Holes in the Solar Wind

Magnetic Holes in the Solar Wind

We attempt to locate magnetic holes from several years of data collected from WIND and ACE spacecraft and use them to study some statistical properties of the magnetic holes.

Author: Paisa Seeluangsawat

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:50903634

Category:

Page: 41

View: 721

Categories:

Turbulence in the Solar Wind

Turbulence in the Solar Wind

This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective.

Author: Roberto Bruno

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319434407

Category: Science

Page: 267

View: 616

This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in order to explain the transport of mass, momentum and energy during the expansion. Further, existing models are compared with direct observations in the heliosphere. The problem of self-similar and anomalous fluctuations in the solar wind is then addressed using tools provided by dynamical system theory and discussed on the basis of available models and observations. The book highlights observations of Yaglom’s law in solar wind turbulence, which is one of the most important findings in fully developed turbulence and directly related to the long-lasting and still unsolved problem of solar wind plasma heating. Lastly, it includes a short chapter dedicated to the kinetic range of fluctuations, which has recently been receiving more attention from the space plasma community, since this is inherently related to turbulent energy dissipation and consequent plasma heating. It particularly focuses on the nature and role of the fluctuations populating this frequency range, and discusses several model predictions and recent observational findings in this context.
Categories: Science

The Solar Wind

The Solar Wind

Author: Robert J. Mackin

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015008418264

Category: Solar wind

Page: 400

View: 743

Categories: Solar wind

Scintillation Studies of Density Micro structure in the Solar Wind Plasma

Scintillation Studies of Density Micro structure in the Solar Wind Plasma

I INTRODUCTION NE Although its gross features are described by relatively
simple hydrodynamic models ( Parker , 1963 ) , the solar wind exhibits a complex
and interesting structure . Even under the most steady conditions , the solar wind
is ...

Author: John Knud Harmon

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822033914276

Category: Plasma (Ionized gases)

Page: 190

View: 303

Categories: Plasma (Ionized gases)