Molecular Aspects of the Stress Response Chaperones Membranes and Networks

Molecular Aspects of the Stress Response  Chaperones  Membranes and Networks

Stress. Response: A. Theoretical. and. Practical. Approach. László Vigh," Zsolt
Török, Gábor Balogh, Attila Glatz, Stefano Piotto and Ibolya Horváth Abstract
number of observations have lent support to a model in which thermal stress is
transA: ...

Author: Peter Csermely

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387399751

Category: Science

Page: 201

View: 948

This book makes a novel synthesis of the molecular aspects of the stress response and long term adaptation processes with the system biology approach of biological networks. Authored by an exciting mixture of top experts and young rising stars, it provides a comprehensive summary of the field and identifies future trends.
Categories: Science

Psychophysiology of the Stress Response and the Hierarchical Structure of Emotional Disorders

Psychophysiology of the Stress Response and the Hierarchical Structure of Emotional Disorders

Physiological stress reactivity is closely linked to emotional disorders like depression and anxiety and is believed to play a causal role in their development.

Author: Molly Penrod

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1090144798

Category: Clinical psychology

Page: 52

View: 488

Physiological stress reactivity is closely linked to emotional disorders like depression and anxiety and is believed to play a causal role in their development. Similar patterns of exaggerated reactivity across a wide range of emotional disorders indicate that physiological hyperreactivity to stress may be a multifinal, or shared, risk factor for these disorders. However, current literature examines stress reactivity in only one or two disorders at a time and is based off categorical classification systems that assume mental disorders to be discrete entities. Recent research into the observed distribution of symptoms of mental illness contests this assumption and proposes that some mental disorders have shared developmental factors that can be revealed through dimensional models of psychopathology. One dimensional model of mental disorders, the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology, addresses this limitation by placing symptoms of internalizing disorders within a dimensional, hierarchically arranged model. The current study utilized this hierarchical model to investigate the relationship between physiological reactions to a laboratory stressor and symptoms of emotional disorders. in a sample of 201 college students, we used latent variable modeling techniques to parse symptoms of emotional disorders into their common (higher-order) and unique (lower-order) features, then examined the strength of the relationship between physiological stress reactivity and common versus unique elements. We hypothesized that common features of emotional disorders would be more strongly related to stress reactivity than any of the unique features. Our results suggested that neither common nor unique features were significantly related to physiological stress reactivity. This finding contradicts previous investigations that found evidence for exaggerated physiological responses in individuals with emotional disorders. Our study improves upon previous research by examining the full range of symptoms of emotional disorders, and our conclusion suggests that the relevance of physiological response in emotional disorders should be critically examined, particularly in light of the limitations of traditional classification systems.
Categories: Clinical psychology

Contrasting seasonal modulation of the stress response in male and female rainbow trout

Contrasting seasonal modulation of the stress response in male and female rainbow trout

Between June and September the magnitude of the plasma cortisol response of maturing male and female rainbow trout to confinement was indistinguishable.

Author: T G (Tom) Pottinger

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:704098501

Category:

Page:

View: 211

Between June and September the magnitude of the plasma cortisol response of maturing male and female rainbow trout to confinement was indistinguishable. A progressive increase in confinement-induced cortisol levels in both sexes occurred during May to September, associated with the seasonal rise in water temperature. Between September and January a reduction of >50% in the magnitude of the cortisol response to confinement in male fish (but no decline in females) coincided with declining water temperature and significant increases in plasma 11-kelotestosterone and elevated plasma testosterone levels. Plasma oestradiol-17 beta levels were significantly greater in females than males throughout the study period and this difference was maximal between September and January. However, plasma testosterone was also elevated in females during this period and levels overall were higher than those in male fish. Previous studies have shown oestradiol-17 beta and testosterone to hair diametrically opposed effects on stress responsiveness in trout, with the former enhancing, and the latter suppressing, the cortisol response to a stressor. The relative roles of androgens, estrogen and water temperature in modulating the stress responsiveness of rainbow trout are discussed.
Categories:

A Clinical Guide to the Treatment of the Human Stress Response

A Clinical Guide to the Treatment of the Human Stress Response

This rich integrative volume will join its predecessors in popularity among practitioners and students across disciplines and specialties.

Author: George S. Everly (Jr.)

Publisher:

ISBN: 1493990993

Category: Clinical psychology

Page:

View: 597

This comprehensive update of the now classic text applies the most current findings across disciplines to the treatment of pathogenic human stress arousal. New and revised chapters bring together the art and science of intervention, based in up-to-date neuroscience, starting with an innovative model tracing the stress-to-disease continuum throughout the systems of the human body. The authors detail the spectrum of physiological and psychological treatments for the stress response, including cognitive therapy, neuromuscular relaxation, breathing exercises, nutritional interventions, and pharmacotherapy. They also assess the strengths and limitations of widely-used measures of the stress response and consider the value of personality factors, cultural considerations, and resilience in stress mediation. Included in the coverage: The anatomy and physiology of the human stress response. Advances in neuroscience: implications for stress. Crisis intervention and psychological first aid. Neurophysiological rationale for the use of the relaxation response. Physical exercise and the human stress response. The pharmacological management of stress reactions. Disaster Mental Health Planning. Cultural Awareness and Stress. The Fourth Edition of A Clinical Guide to the Treatment of Human Stress Response offers readers a dual perspective, exceedingly useful in examining the origins of the stress response, and in preventing and treating the response itself. This rich integrative volume will join its predecessors in popularity among practitioners and students across disciplines and specialties.
Categories: Clinical psychology

The Stress Response

The Stress Response

Psychological distress, physical threats, and difficult social circumstances all
activate the same stress response. The symptoms can range from mild to severe
and might cause little or no disruption in your life or could be severely debilitating
.

Author: Christy Matta

Publisher: New Harbinger Publications

ISBN: 9781608821310

Category: Self-Help

Page: 224

View: 431

Life is stressful, and that’s not always a bad thing. A certain amount of stress actually helps us work more productively and take action in a crisis. But recurrent and prolonged stress can paralyze us or lead us to feel exhausted, angry, or overwhelmed. The skills presented in The Stress Response can dramatically change the way you process stress. And they don’t take much time to learn. Drawn from a technique therapists use called dialectical behavior therapy, these powerful strategies can help you manage the slings and arrows of life more gracefully and effectively. After learning the skills in this book, you’ll: • Respond quickly to early signs of stress • Approach, not avoid, stressful tasks and events • Cope effectively with life events that contribute to stress • Change the catastrophic thoughts and biases that make stress worse • Practice soothing strategies for calming your body’s stress response
Categories: Self-Help

The Nature and Treatment of the Stress Response

The Nature and Treatment of the Stress Response

Although widely accepted by many, the Selyean definition of stress has not gone
unchallenged. The aspect of this definition to be most questioned is the degree of
“nonspecificity” inherent in the stress response. Selye (1956, 1974) has argued ...

Author: George S. Everly Jr.

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461332404

Category: Psychology

Page: 232

View: 521

Barely more than twenty years ago the inquiry into the nature and implications of the psychophysiologic stress response seemed to be restricted to laboratory animals. Today, however, scientists from a wide range of disciplines are studying stress and its implications for human health and disease. This may be because our technical ability actually to measure the phenomenon has increased, as has our understanding of human psychophysiology. Just as important, how ever, may be the fact that we have entered a new era of disease. According to Kenneth Pelletier, we have entered upon an era in which stress plays a dominant role in the determination of human disease. Pelletier has stated that up to 90% of all disease may be stress-related. Whether this estimation seems inflated or not, the fact remains that clinicians of all kinds, including physicians, psychologists, physical therapists, social workers, and counselors, are daily being confronted with clients suffering from excessive psychophysiologic stress arousal. This fact has created a need to know more about the stress response and its treatment. Although more and more health-care professionals are directly or indirectly working with clients who manifest excessive stress, there has been no text previously written which attempted to condensE' between the covers of a single volume a practical, clinically compre hensive discussion of what stress is (as best we currently understand it) and how to treat it when it becomes excessive.
Categories: Psychology

The Stress Response of Critical Illness Metabolic and Hormonal Aspects

The Stress Response of Critical Illness  Metabolic and Hormonal Aspects

Paul E. Marik Abstract Exposure of the host to diverse noxious stimuli results in a
stereotypic and coordinated stress response which serves to restore homeostasis
and enhance survival. The stress response is mediated primarily by the ...

Author: Jean-Charles Preiser

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319276878

Category: Medical

Page: 245

View: 927

This book demonstrates how the latest insights into the physiopathology of the stress response can be integrated into clinical practice. The topic is particularly relevant since the metabolic changes triggered by acute stress, including adaptive responses such as resistance to anabolic signals, have recently been more precisely delineated. The underlying mechanisms of these changes are also now better understood. The authors analyse how these advances could result in better management and more effective prevention of the long-term clinical consequences of the alterations occurring during the acute phase. An international panel of respected experts discusses these topics and describes the management of some common clinical conditions.
Categories: Medical

Stress Response

Stress Response

We also provide assay procedures that should be used to demonstrate that the
inhibitors are preventing the activation of the desired kinase in cells. From:
Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 99: Stress Response: Methods and Protocols
Edited ...

Author: Stephen M. Keyse

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781592590544

Category: Medical

Page: 488

View: 298

In is now understood that the response of mammalian cells to a wide variety of potentially toxic agents may be intimately linked with many human diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, ischemia, fever, infection, and cancer. In Stress Response: Methods and Protocols, Stephen Keyse has assembled a diverse collection of readily reproducible methods devoted to the study of these varied and powerful responses. Written by leading researchers expert in the techniques they describe, these detailed methods cover the detection and assay of stress-induced damage, the activation of a wide range of signal transduction pathways by cellular stress, stress-induced gene expression, and stress protein function. To ensure experimental success, step-by-step guidance is provided for each method, along with details of reagents, equipment, and other requirements. The methods include both well-established techniques and new technologies at the leading edge of research. Wide ranging and highly practical, Stress Response: Methods and Protocols provides a gold-standard bench manual for today's basic and clinical scientists working to understand how cells and tissues respond during physiological stress and in human disease
Categories: Medical

A Clinical Guide to the Treatment of the Human Stress Response

A Clinical Guide to the Treatment of the Human Stress Response

Finally, it has been suggested that the clinicians who are the most successful in
treating the stress response have training not only in the psychology of human
behavior, but also medical physiology (Miller, 1978; Miller & Dworkin, 1977).

Author: George S. Jr. Everly

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306478000

Category: Psychology

Page: 455

View: 546

This updated edition covers a range of new topics, including stress and the immune system, post-traumatic stress and crisis intervention, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD), Crisis Management Briefings in response to mass disasters and terrorism, Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM), spirituality and religion as stress management tools, dietary factors and stress, and updated information on psychopharmacologic intervention in the human stress response. It is a comprehensive and accessible guide for students, practitioners, and researchers in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, medicine, nursing, social work, and public health.
Categories: Psychology

Optimizing Stress Responses with Reappraisal and Mindset Interventions an Integrated Model

Optimizing Stress Responses with Reappraisal and Mindset Interventions  an Integrated Model

Objectives and Conclusions: In this review, we demonstrate how stress appraisals (e.g., [Jamieson, J.P., Nock, M.K., & Mendes, W.B.(2012). Mind over matter: reappraising arousal improves cardiovascular and cognitive responses to stress.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1051844720

Category:

Page:

View: 381

ABSTRACT: Background: The dominant perspective in society is that stress has negative consequences, and not surprisingly, the vast majority of interventions for coping with stress focus on reducing the frequency or severity of stressors. However, the effectiveness of stress attenuation is limited because it is often not possible to avoid stressors, and avoiding or minimizing stress can lead individuals to miss opportunities for performance and growth. Thus, during stressful situations, a more efficacious approach is to optimize stress responses (i.e., promote adaptive, approach-motivated responses). Objectives and Conclusions: In this review, we demonstrate how stress appraisals (e.g., [Jamieson, J.P., Nock, M.K., & Mendes, W.B.(2012). Mind over matter: reappraising arousal improves cardiovascular and cognitive responses to stress. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141 (3), 417–422. doi:10.1037/a0025719 ]) and stress mindsets (e.g., [Crum, A.J., Salovey, P., & Achor, S.(2013). Rethinking stress: The role of mindsets in determining the stress response. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104 (4), 716–733. doi:10.1037/a0031201 ]) can be used as regulatory tools to optimize stress responses, facilitate performance, and promote active coping. Respectively, these interventions invite individuals to (a) perceive stress responses as functional and adaptive, and (b) see the opportunity inherent in stress. We then propose a novel integration of reappraisal and mindset models to maximize the utility and effectiveness of stress optimization. Additionally, we discuss future directions with regard to how stress responses unfold over time and between people to impact outcomes in the domains of education, organizations, and clinical science.
Categories:

Understanding Pathogen Behaviour Virulence Stress Response and Resistance

Understanding Pathogen Behaviour Virulence  Stress Response and Resistance

5 Factors affecting stress response C. Dodd , The University of Nottingham , UK
5.1 Introduction : heterogeneity in cellular response to stress Although in an
exponentially growing bacterial culture there is an assumption of homogeneity ,
in fact ...

Author: Mansel Griffiths

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0849334268

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 611

View: 717

Pathogens respond dynamically to their environment. Understanding their behavior is critical for two important reasons: because of emerging evidence of increased pathogen resistance to established sanitation and preservation techniques and because of the increased use of minimal processing technologies, which are potentially more vulnerable to the development of resistance. Understanding Pathogen Behavior: Virulence, Stress Response And Resistance collects and summarizes the wealth of recent research in this area and its implications for microbiologists and QA staff in the food industry. ISBN 1 85573 953 4
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Mathematical Modelling of the Cell Cycle Stress Response

Mathematical Modelling of the Cell Cycle Stress Response

Proper response to stress is a matter of life or death for a cell. Hence cells have
evolved complex and robust networks of molecular interactions which allow them
to live in different growth conditions. To understand the intertwined nonlinear ...

Author: Elahe Radmaneshfar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783319007441

Category: Science

Page: 109

View: 972

The cell cycle is a sequence of biochemical events that are controlled by complex but robust molecular machinery. This enables cells to achieve accurate self-reproduction under a broad range of conditions. Environmental changes are transmitted by molecular signaling networks, which coordinate their actions with the cell cycle. This work presents the first description of two complementary computational models describing the influence of osmotic stress on the entire cell cycle of S. cerevisiae. Our models condense a vast amount of experimental evidence on the interaction of the cell cycle network components with the osmotic stress pathway. Importantly, it is only by considering the entire cell cycle that we are able to make a series of novel predictions which emerge from the coupling between the molecular components of different cell cycle phases. The model-based predictions are supported by experiments in S. cerevisiae and, moreover, have recently been observed in other eukaryotes. Furthermore our models reveal the mechanisms that emerge as a result of the interaction between the cell cycle and stress response networks.
Categories: Science

Stress Response Syndromes

Stress Response Syndromes

Foreword to the First Edition This book by Dr. Mardi Horowitz on the
psychological understanding and the psychotherapeutic amelioration of
specifically circumscribed psychopathological entities, the Stress Response
Syndromes, is an ...

Author: Mardi J. Horowitz

Publisher: Jason Aronson, Incorporated

ISBN: 9780765708410

Category: Psychology

Page: 322

View: 233

The first edition of this now classic work provided the basis for adding post traumatic stress disorders to diagnoses of mental conditions. Each subsequent edition added new understanding, summaries of empirical new research, and new guides for clinicians. The thoroughly revised fifth edition adheres to changes that will be made in DSM-5 and gives the reasons for symptom formation and how treatment can not only resolve symptoms but encourage post-traumatic growth that leads to a more coherent sense of identity and renewed capacities for connecting compassionately with others. Stress Response Syndromes takes the reader from surface to depth with many lucid case examples and how-to advice for both trainees and experienced clinicians.
Categories: Psychology

Stress Response Pathways in Cancer

Stress Response Pathways in Cancer

Since that time, the important role of this protein in cellular transformation, viral
infection, immune function, and the cellular stress response has come to be
appreciated and understood. In the past 10 years, the findings that many different
types ...

Author: Georg T. Wondrak

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789401794213

Category: Medical

Page: 446

View: 231

It is now established that dysregulated cell stress response pathways play a critical role in tumorigenesis, and a refined mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon at the molecular level promises to open new avenues for targeted therapeutic strategies that may benefit cancer patients in the near future. Coauthored by recognized leaders in cancer research from five continents, this novel book provides a comprehensive perspective on cell stress response pathways and therapeutic opportunities. Focusing on the role of genotoxic, proteotoxic, oxidative, metabolic, and inflammatory stress in tumorigenesis, the book is essential reading for students, basic researchers, and biomedical health care professionals interested in cancer and therapeutic development.
Categories: Medical

Using Functional Infrared Thermal Imaging to Measure Stress Responses

Using Functional Infrared Thermal Imaging to Measure Stress Responses

The stress response reflects a coordinated pattern of physiological changes that serves the adaptive function of increasing an organism's ability to cope with situations that require action or defense.

Author: Julia T. Kandus

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1145326009

Category: Body temperature

Page: 62

View: 351

The stress response reflects a coordinated pattern of physiological changes that serves the adaptive function of increasing an organism's ability to cope with situations that require action or defense. The changes in blood flow associated with the stress response may be detectable using the relatively new research technique of functional infrared thermal imaging (fITI). The present study was designed to determine the time-course and topography of temperature changes in human faces during the experience of a stressor. Infrared images were taken from 29 female participants while they completed the mental arithmetic component of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Continuously self-reported stress levels confirmed that this task caused a significant increase in stress levels. Skin temperature was measured from 5 facial regions of interest (ROIs: forehead, periorbital, nasal, cheeks, and perioral). Stress caused a significant increase in the forehead and cheek regions, and a significant decrease in the perioral region. These results demonstrated that stress is detectable from facial skin using thermography. However, the ability of this technique to distinguish between different affective states (e.g., stress vs embarrassment) remains to be determined. As such, more research is needed before fITI is deemed a reliable tool for measuring affective states in real-world settings such as airports.
Categories: Body temperature

A Stress Response that Allows Highly Mutated Cells to Survive and Proliferate

A Stress Response that Allows Highly Mutated Cells to Survive and Proliferate

Cells, tissues, and organisms must deal with exogenous and endogenous sources of mutagenesis.

Author: Jonathan Mares

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1191906959

Category:

Page:

View: 722

Cells, tissues, and organisms must deal with exogenous and endogenous sources of mutagenesis. High mutation rates are associated with disease, but they can also lead to more rapid acquisition of adaptive mutations. For example, in the cases of oncogenic transformation, infection, or environmental stress many cells are found to be hypermutators. However, mutations are on average deleterious. Understanding the mechanisms and pathways that cells employ to mitigate the toxicity of accumulating mutation burdens has broad implications for evolution, disease, and how biological systems tolerate the accumulation of mutations that come with stress and age. In this thesis, we present two studies utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae to create a model system to study the cellular response to accumulating mutation burden and a platform for high-throughput screening to identify compounds that selectively target cells with high mutation burden. We discovered a novel protective transcriptional response to accumulating mutation burden, that we term the Eukaryotic Mutation Burden Response (EMBR). We additionally identified the key regulator of EMBR induction: the transcriptional regulator UME6. Components of EMBR are required for cells to survive the toxicity of mutation burden. Likewise, UME6 is necessary to tolerate protein-folding stress and is required to survive accumulating mutation burden. Lastly, we identified a structurally diverse set of compounds that selectively target cells with high mutation burdens. These compounds implicate double-strand break repair and calcium homeostasis as additional mechanisms that protect against the toxicity of accumulated mutations and provide potential avenues for future development of therapeutics that target the mechanisms that cancers and pathogens use to survive mutation burden.
Categories:

Yeast Stress Responses

Yeast Stress Responses

response. to. heat. shock. Amy Trott and Kevin A. Morano Department of
Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of TexasHouston Medical
School, USA Abstract Yeast respond to cytotoxic thermal stress via the activation
of a gene ...

Author: Stefan Hohmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540456117

Category: Science

Page: 389

View: 216

Every cell has developed mechanisms to respond to changes in its environment and to adapt its growth and metabolism to unfavorable conditions. The unicellular eukaryote yeast has long proven as a particularly useful model system for the analysis of cellular stress responses, and the completion of the yeast genome sequence has only added to its power This volume comprehensively reviews both the basic features of the yeast genral stress response and the specific adapations to different stress types (nutrient depletion, osmotic and heat shock as well as salt and oxidative stress). It includes the latest findings in the field and discusses the implications for the analysis of stress response mechanisms in higher eukaryotes as well.
Categories: Science