Theories of Immune Networks

Theories of Immune Networks

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen.

Author: Henri Atlan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642839351

Category: Medical

Page: 117

View: 168

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen. Clonal selection was the name of the theory based on this idea and it has provided the main concepts to account for the known features of the immune response. More recently, immunologists have discovered a wealth of new facts, in the form of different regulatory cells (helpers, suppressors, antigen presenting cells), genetic determinations of immune responses such as those involved in graft re jections, different molecular structures responsible for intercellular interactions such as interleukins, cytokins, idiotype-antiidiotype recognition and others. While furthering our understanding of the local interactions (molecular and cellular) in volved in the immune response, these discoveries have led to a questioning of the simplicities of the classical clonal selection theory. It is clear today that every single immune response is a cooperative phenomenon involving several different molecular and cellular interactions taking place in a coupled manner. In addition, cross reactivity to different antigens has shown that responses of the whole im mune system to different antigens are not completely isolated from one another and that the history of encounters with different antigens plays a crucial role in the maturation of the whole system. Thus, problems of complexity, generation of di versity and self-organization have entered the field of immunology.
Categories: Medical

Theories of Immune Networks

Theories of Immune Networks

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen.

Author: Henri Atlan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642839363

Category: Medical

Page: 117

View: 969

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen. Clonal selection was the name of the theory based on this idea and it has provided the main concepts to account for the known features of the immune response. More recently, immunologists have discovered a wealth of new facts, in the form of different regulatory cells (helpers, suppressors, antigen presenting cells), genetic determinations of immune responses such as those involved in graft re jections, different molecular structures responsible for intercellular interactions such as interleukins, cytokins, idiotype-antiidiotype recognition and others. While furthering our understanding of the local interactions (molecular and cellular) in volved in the immune response, these discoveries have led to a questioning of the simplicities of the classical clonal selection theory. It is clear today that every single immune response is a cooperative phenomenon involving several different molecular and cellular interactions taking place in a coupled manner. In addition, cross reactivity to different antigens has shown that responses of the whole im mune system to different antigens are not completely isolated from one another and that the history of encounters with different antigens plays a crucial role in the maturation of the whole system. Thus, problems of complexity, generation of di versity and self-organization have entered the field of immunology.
Categories: Medical

Theories of Immune Networks

Theories of Immune Networks

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen.

Author: Henri Atlan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540516786

Category: Medical

Page: 117

View: 162

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen. Clonal selection was the name of the theory based on this idea and it has provided the main concepts to account for the known features of the immune response. More recently, immunologists have discovered a wealth of new facts, in the form of different regulatory cells (helpers, suppressors, antigen presenting cells), genetic determinations of immune responses such as those involved in graft re jections, different molecular structures responsible for intercellular interactions such as interleukins, cytokins, idiotype-antiidiotype recognition and others. While furthering our understanding of the local interactions (molecular and cellular) in volved in the immune response, these discoveries have led to a questioning of the simplicities of the classical clonal selection theory. It is clear today that every single immune response is a cooperative phenomenon involving several different molecular and cellular interactions taking place in a coupled manner. In addition, cross reactivity to different antigens has shown that responses of the whole im mune system to different antigens are not completely isolated from one another and that the history of encounters with different antigens plays a crucial role in the maturation of the whole system. Thus, problems of complexity, generation of di versity and self-organization have entered the field of immunology.
Categories: Medical

Artificial Immune Systems A New Computational Intelligence Approach

Artificial Immune Systems  A New Computational Intelligence Approach

Atlan, H. & Cohen, I. R. (1989), Theories of Immune Networks, Springer- Verlag. Bernardes, A. T. & dos Santos, R. M. Z. (1997), "Immune Network at the Edge of Chaos", / theor. Biol, 186, pp. 173-187. Bersini, H. & Calenbuhr, V. (1997), ...

Author: Leandro Nunes de Castro

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781852335946

Category: Computers

Page: 357

View: 138

Recently there has been a growing interest in the use of the biological immune system as a source of inspiration for solving complicated computational problems. The immune system involves many information-processing abilities including pattern recognition, learning, memory and inherent distributed parallel processing and for these, and other reasons, it has received a significant amount of interest as a metaphor within computing. This emerging field is known as Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), and applications of AIS include, machine learning, fault diagnosis, computer security, scheduling, virus detection and optimisation.
Categories: Computers

The Chiropractic Theories

The Chiropractic Theories

TRADITIONAL THEORIES OF IMMUNITY According to traditional immunology, specific humoral immunity is based on a ... Network Theory Perelson (32) described immune network theory as a system providing for both stability and responsiveness.

Author: Robert A. Leach

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 9780683307474

Category: Medical

Page: 463

View: 220

Designed to be a primary reference for chiropractic students, this is a concise, scientific survey of chiropractic theories based on current research. Completely restructured for the Fourth Edition, this book focuses on the most current biomedical research on the three phase model of vertebral subluxation complex (V.S.C.). This is a useful reference for students studying for the National Board of Chiropractors Examination Parts II, III, and IV, as well as a post-graduate reference providing information on the chiropractic perspective on health and wellness, nutrition, exercise, psychosocial issues, and case management principles for wellness care. This new text focuses on developing critical thinking among chiropractic students, and includes new contributors and new chapters on principles of statistics and a minimum process for validation of chiropractic theory.
Categories: Medical

Theory And Control Of Dynamical Systems Applications To Systems In Biology

Theory And Control Of Dynamical Systems  Applications To Systems In Biology

Richter, P. H. (1975). A network theory of the immune system. Eur. J. Immunol. 5, 350–354. Richter, P. H. (1978). The network idea and the immune response. In: Theoretical Immunology, eds., G. I. Bell, A. S. Perelson and G. H. Pimbley, ...

Author: Andersson Stig I

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814555258

Category:

Page: 252

View: 355

For the mathematical modeling of complex system behavior, dynamical systems play an increasing role. The flexibility and very rich phenomenology exhibited by such systems make them indispensible in this context. Control theory for dynamical systems is also a highly active field of research where a number of important results have been achieved recently.This combined course and workshop deals with recent results regarding dynamical systems and control theory, primarily in differential geometric terms as well as the applications of these fields to biological systems, with an emphasis on various aspects of the immune system and on neural networks.
Categories:

Theoretical and Experimental Insights into Immunology

Theoretical and Experimental Insights into Immunology

REFERENCES Alexander-Crespera H (1951) Praktisches Lehrbuch der Tuberkulose, Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig, pp 190-194 Behn U, Hemmen JL van (1989a) On the theory of networks for the immune system. In: Ebeling W, Peschel M (eds) ...

Author: Alan S. Perelson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642769771

Category: Medical

Page: 480

View: 873

Immunology is largely a science of observation and experimentation, and these approaches have lead to great increases in our knowledge of the genes, molecules and cells of the immune system. This book is an up-to-date discussion of the current state of modelling and theoretical work in immunology, of the impact of theory on experiment, and of future directions for theoretical research. Among the topics discussed are the function and evolution of the immune system, computer modelling of the humoral immune response and of idiotypic networks and idiotypic mimicry, T-cell memory, cryptic peptides, new views and models of AIDS and autoimmunity, and the shaping of the immune repertoire by early presented antigens and self immunoglobulin.
Categories: Medical

Large Scale Network Centric Distributed Systems

Large Scale Network Centric Distributed Systems

Immune networkswere proposed by Jerne[135] based on several shortcomings of traditional selfnonselfdiscrimination theories. The theory of immune networks is based on the fact that immune cells and molecules compose an adaptive network ...

Author: Hamid Sarbazi-Azad

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118714829

Category: Computers

Page: 760

View: 361

A highly accessible reference offering a broad range of topics and insights on large scale network-centric distributed systems Evolving from the fields of high-performance computing and networking, large scale network-centric distributed systems continues to grow as one of the most important topics in computing and communication and many interdisciplinary areas. Dealing with both wired and wireless networks, this book focuses on the design and performance issues of such systems. Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems provides in-depth coverage ranging from ground-level hardware issues (such as buffer organization, router delay, and flow control) to the high-level issues immediately concerning application or system users (including parallel programming, middleware, and OS support for such computing systems). Arranged in five parts, it explains and analyzes complex topics to an unprecedented degree: Part 1: Multicore and Many-Core (Mc) Systems-on-Chip Part 2: Pervasive/Ubiquitous Computing and Peer-to-Peer Systems Part 3: Wireless/Mobile Networks Part 4: Grid and Cloud Computing Part 5: Other Topics Related to Network-Centric Computing and Its Applications Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems is an incredibly useful resource for practitioners, postgraduate students, postdocs, and researchers.
Categories: Computers

Artificial Immune Systems

Artificial Immune Systems

A number of theories abound, from antigenic retention, to immune networks. A theory first proposed by Jerne (1974) suggested that B-cell memory was maintained via an Idiotypic network. This theory attempts to explain how B-cells survive ...

Author: Giuseppe Nicosia

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540302209

Category: Computers

Page: 448

View: 827

Arti?cial Immune Systems have come of age. They are no longer an obscure computersciencetechnique,workedonbyacoupleoffarsightedresearchgroups. Today, researchers across the globe are working on new computer algorithms inspired by the workings of the immune system. This vigorous ?eld of research investigates how immunobiology can assist our technology, and along the way is beginning to help biologists understand their unique problems. AIS is now old enough to understand its roots, its context in the research community, and its exciting future. It has grown too big to be con?ned to s- cial sessions in evolutionary computation conferences. AIS researchers are now forming their own community and identity. The International Conference on Arti?cial Immune Systems is proud to be the premiere conference in the area. As its organizers, we were honored to have such a variety of innovative and original scienti?c papers presented this year. ICARIS 2004 was the third international conference dedicated entirely to the ?eld of Arti?cial Immune Systems (AIS). It was held in Catania, on the beautiful island of Sicily, Italy, during September 13–16, 2004. While hosting the conference, the city of Catania gave the participants the opportunity to enjoy the richness of its historical and cultural atmosphere and the beauty of its natural resources, the sea, and the Etna volcano.
Categories: Computers

Mathematical Modeling of the Immune System in Homeostasis Infection and Disease

Mathematical Modeling of the Immune System in Homeostasis  Infection and Disease

20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. Grossman Z. The concept of idiotypic network: deficient, or premature? In: Atlan, H, Cohen, IR, editors. Theories of Immune Networks. Berlin: Springer-Verlag (1989). p. 38–52. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-83935-1_5 2.

Author: Gennady Bocharov

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889634613

Category:

Page:

View: 555

The immune system provides the host organism with defense mechanisms against invading pathogens and tumor development and it plays an active role in tissue and organ regeneration. Deviations from the normal physiological functioning of the immune system can lead to the development of diseases with various pathologies including autoimmune diseases and cancer. Modern research in immunology is characterized by an unprecedented level of detail that has progressed towards viewing the immune system as numerous components that function together as a whole network. Currently, we are facing significant difficulties in analyzing the data being generated from high-throughput technologies for understanding immune system dynamics and functions, a problem known as the ‘curse of dimensionality’. As the mainstream research in mathematical immunology is based on low-resolution models, a fundamental question is how complex the mathematical models should be? To respond to this challenging issue, we advocate a hypothesis-driven approach to formulate and apply available mathematical modelling technologies for understanding the complexity of the immune system. Moreover, pure empirical analyses of immune system behavior and the system’s response to external perturbations can only produce a static description of the individual components of the immune system and the interactions between them. Shifting our view of the immune system from a static schematic perception to a dynamic multi-level system is a daunting task. It requires the development of appropriate mathematical methodologies for the holistic and quantitative analysis of multi-level molecular and cellular networks. Their coordinated behavior is dynamically controlled via distributed feedback and feedforward mechanisms which altogether orchestrate immune system functions. The molecular regulatory loops inherent to the immune system that mediate cellular behaviors, e.g. exhaustion, suppression, activation and tuning, can be analyzed using mathematical categories such as multi-stability, switches, ultra-sensitivity, distributed system, graph dynamics, or hierarchical control. GB is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant 18-11-00171). AM is also supported by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness and FEDER grant no. SAF2016-75505-R, the “María de Maeztu” Programme for Units of Excellence in R&D (MDM-2014-0370) and the Russian Science Foundation (grant 18-11-00171).
Categories:

Immunity Based Systems

Immunity Based Systems

Agur Z. (1988) Fixed points of majority rule cellular automata with application to plasticity and precision of the immune system. Complex Systems. 2:351–357 5. Atlan H., Cohen I. R. (eds). (1989) Theories of Immune Networks.

Author: Yoshiteru Ishida

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783662078631

Category: Computers

Page: 177

View: 642

After I came to know Jerne's network theory on the immune system, I became fascinated with the immune system as an information system. The main pro totypes for biological information systems have been the neural systems and the brain. However, the immune system is not only an interesting informa tion system but it may provide a design paradigm for artificial information systems. With such a consideration, I initiated a project titled "autonomous decentralized recognition mechanism of the immune network and its applica tion to distributed information processing" in 1990 under a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on a Priority Area ("Autonomous Distributed Systems") supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture. During the project, I promoted the idea that the immune system could be a prototype of autonomous distributed systems. After the project, we organized an international workshop on immunity based systems in 1996 in conjunction with the International Conference on Multi-Agent Systems held in Kyoto, Japan. Recently, there have been several international conferences related to topics inspired by the immune system and an increasing number of research papers related to the topic. In writing this book, a decade after the project, I still believe that the immune system can be a prototype, a compact but sophisticated system that nature has shown us for building artificial information systems in this network age of the twenty-first century.
Categories: Computers

Intelligent Computing Theories and Methodologies

Intelligent Computing Theories and Methodologies

Widyanto, M.R., Nobuhara, H., Kawamoto, K., Hirota, K., Kusumoputro, B.: Improving recognition and generalization capability of back-propagation NN using self-organized network inspired by immune algorithm. Appl. Soft Comput.

Author: De-Shuang Huang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319221861

Category: Computers

Page: 755

View: 102

This two-volume set LNCS 9225 and LNCS 9226 constitutes - in conjunction with the volume LNAI 9227 - the refereed proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Intelligent Computing, ICIC 2015, held in Fuzhou, China, in August 2015. The total of 191 full and 42 short papers presented in the three ICIC 2015 volumes was carefully reviewed and selected from 671 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections such as evolutionary computation and learning; compressed sensing, sparse coding and social computing; neural networks, nature inspired computing and optimization; pattern recognition and signal processing; image processing; biomedical informatics theory and methods; differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and niche technology; intelligent computing and knowledge discovery and data mining; soft computing and machine learning; computational biology, protein structure and function prediction; genetic algorithms; artificial bee colony algorithms; swarm intelligence and optimization; social computing; information security; virtual reality and human-computer interaction; healthcare informatics theory and methods; unsupervised learning; collective intelligence; intelligent computing in robotics; intelligent computing in communication networks; intelligent control and automation; intelligent data analysis and prediction; gene expression array analysis; gene regulation modeling and analysis; protein-protein interaction prediction; biology inspired computing and optimization; analysis and visualization of large biological data sets; motif detection; biomarker discovery; modeling; simulation; and optimization of biological systems; biomedical data modeling and mining; intelligent computing in biomedical signal/image analysis; intelligent computing in brain imaging; neuroinformatics; cheminformatics; intelligent computing in computational biology; computational genomics; special session on biomedical data integration and mining in the era of big data; special session on big data analytics; special session on artificial intelligence for ambient assisted living; and special session on swarm intelligence with discrete dynamics.
Categories: Computers

Stochastic Modelling In Biology Relevant Mathematical Concepts And Recent Applications

Stochastic Modelling In Biology  Relevant Mathematical Concepts And Recent Applications

REFERENCES [1]Cohen, I.R. (1989) Natural id-anti-id networks and the immunological homunculus, in: Theories of Immune Networks, eds. Atlan, H. and Cohen, I.R., Springer Verlag, Heidelberg Paul W.E. (1989) The immune system: An ...

Author: Tautu Petre

Publisher: #N/A

ISBN: 9789814611923

Category:

Page: 456

View: 642

These proceedings focus on future prospects as well as on the present status in some important areas of applied probability and mathematical biology. Some papers have educational intentions regarding the mathematical modelling of special biological situations. The workshop was the third one in Heidelberg dealing with stochastic modelling in biology, e.g., cell biology, embryology, oncology, epidemiology and genetics.
Categories:

Handbook of Research on Artificial Immune Systems and Natural Computing Applying Complex Adaptive Technologies

Handbook of Research on Artificial Immune Systems and Natural Computing  Applying Complex Adaptive Technologies

It makes researchers learn that in the field of AIS, immune system should not only be used as metaphor for solving computer security or designing optimization algorithms based on clonal selection theory and immune network theory from ...

Author: Mo, Hongwei

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781605663111

Category: Computers

Page: 634

View: 796

"This book offers new ideas and recent developments in Natural Computing, especially on artificial immune systems"--Provided by publisher.
Categories: Computers

Artificial Immune Systems and Their Applications

Artificial Immune Systems and Their Applications

Jerne N K, 1984, Immunological Reviews 79, 5 41. Perelson A S, 1989, Immunological Reviews 110, 5 42. Atlan H and Cohen I R, 1989, (eds.) Theories of Immune Networks (Springer) 43. Stewart J and Varela F J, 1989, Immunological Reviews ...

Author: Dipankar Dasgupta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642599019

Category: Computers

Page: 306

View: 485

This is a pioneering work on the emerging field of artificial immune systems-highly distributed systems based on the principles of the natural system. Like artificial neural networks, artificial immune systems can learn new information and recall previously learned information. This book provides an overview of artificial immune systems, explaining its applications in areas such as immunological memory, anomaly detection algorithms, and modeling the effects of prior infection on vaccine efficacy.
Categories: Computers

Genetics of the Immune Response

Genetics of the Immune Response

Under network theory there are no grounds for suspicion and the heroic explanation proposed by Jerne (using many additional guesses) illustrates my point although by calling it an "enigma" he shows that his instincts are good.

Author: Erna Moller

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468444698

Category: Medical

Page: 316

View: 114

The 55th Nobel Symposium entitled "Genetics of the Immune Response" took place in Saltsjobaden, Sweden, June 15 - 17, 1982. The topic was selected for several reasons, such as the rapid progress in the genetic analysis of immunoglobulin and MHC genes and the elucidation of the mechanism of switch to different immunoglobulin classes and subclasses. The genetic advances formed a basis for discussions of problems relating to regulation of T cell subsets, mechanisms of activation and regulation of B cell differentiation and an analysis of the network hypothesis. The format of the symposium was arranged so as to include two sessions in the morning and two in the afternoon. Each session was introduced by one speaker, followed by free discussion. The intro ductory lectures are included in the proceedings. The participants summarized their contributions to the discussion in written form. In addi tion to the closed sessions, there was one open session at the Karolinska Institute with lectures by Drs. L. Hood, C. Milstein, D. Baltimore, J. Klein and B. Benacerraf, which are not included in these procee din gs. The symposium was sponsored by the Nobel Foundation and its Nobel Symposium Committee through grants from the Tercentenary Fund of the Bank of Sweden and the Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation. The Swedish Medical Research Council, the Swedish Cancer Society and the Swedish Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs also made contri butions.
Categories: Medical

Computational Intelligence in Sensor Networks

Computational Intelligence in Sensor Networks

The most widely accepted theory is that antigen is stimulating a 'virgin' B cell and produce memory cells and effectors cells. The other, less accepted method states that the immune network is dynamically in nature.

Author: Bijan Bihari Mishra

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783662572771

Category: Computers

Page: 488

View: 906

This book discusses applications of computational intelligence in sensor networks. Consisting of twenty chapters, it addresses topics ranging from small-scale data processing to big data processing realized through sensor nodes with the help of computational approaches. Advances in sensor technology and computer networks have enabled sensor networks to evolve from small systems of large sensors to large nets of miniature sensors, from wired communications to wireless communications, and from static to dynamic network topology. In spite of these technological advances, sensor networks still face the challenges of communicating and processing large amounts of imprecise and partial data in resource-constrained environments. Further, optimal deployment of sensors in an environment is also seen as an intractable problem. On the other hand, computational intelligence techniques like neural networks, evolutionary computation, swarm intelligence, and fuzzy systems are gaining popularity in solving intractable problems in various disciplines including sensor networks. The contributions combine the best attributes of these two distinct fields, offering readers a comprehensive overview of the emerging research areas and presenting first-hand experience of a variety of computational intelligence approaches in sensor networks.
Categories: Computers

Modelling in Molecular Biology

Modelling in Molecular Biology

Lippert , K. , Behn , U .: Modeling the Immune System : Architecture and dynamics of idiotypic networks . ... Bellomo , N. , Pulvirenti , M. ( eds ) : Modeling in Applied Sciences : A Kinetic Theory Approach ( Birkhäuser , Boston 1996 ) ...

Author: Gabriel Ciobanu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540407995

Category: Science

Page: 305

View: 539

Presents new mathematical and computational models as well as statistical methods for the solution of fundamental problems in the biosciences. Describes how to find regularities among empirical data, as well as conceptual models and theories.
Categories: Science

Applied Artificial Intelligence

Applied Artificial Intelligence

Hoffmann [1] has proposed a symmetrical network theory for the immune system, which is a tractable first approximation. Principal lymphocytes that are involved in the response to a particular antigen are classified into just two ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: 9789814478472

Category:

Page:

View: 801

Categories:

Immunological Computation

Immunological Computation

Theory and Applications Dipankar Dasgupta, Fernando Nino. 2.2.2 Second-Generation Immune Networks The second-generation IN (SGIN) refers to a specific class of networks that tries to model natural autonomous behavior of the immune ...

Author: Dipankar Dasgupta

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420065467

Category: Mathematics

Page: 296

View: 828

Clearly, nature has been very effective in creating organisms that are capable of protecting themselves against a wide variety of pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The powerful information-processing capabilities of the immune system, such as feature extraction, pattern recognition, learning, memory, and its distributive nature provide rich metaphors that researchers are finding very useful for the development of computational models. While some of these models are designed to give us a better understanding of the immune system, other models are being developed to solve complex real-world problems such as anomaly detection, pattern recognition, data analysis (clustering), function optimization, and computer security. Immunological Computation: Theory and Applications is devoted to discussing different immunological mechanisms and their relation to information processing and problem solving. This unique volume presents a compendium of up-to-date work related to immunity-based techniques. After presenting the general abstractions of immune elements and processes used in computational models, it then— Reviews standard procedures, representations, and matching rules that are used in all immunological computation models Covers the details of one of the earliest and most well-known immune algorithms, based on the negative selection (NS) process that occurs in the thymus Examines promising immune models, including those based on danger theory, cytokine network models, and MHC-based models The text goes further to describe a wide variety of applications, which include computer security, the detection and analysis of anomalies and faults, robotics, and data mining among others. To enhance understanding of this emerging field of study, each chapter includes a summary, review questions, and exercises for readers to practice; as well as issues that will require future research.
Categories: Mathematics