Theories of Immune Networks

Theories of Immune Networks

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen.

Author: Henri Atlan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642839351

Category: Medical

Page: 117

View: 406

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen. Clonal selection was the name of the theory based on this idea and it has provided the main concepts to account for the known features of the immune response. More recently, immunologists have discovered a wealth of new facts, in the form of different regulatory cells (helpers, suppressors, antigen presenting cells), genetic determinations of immune responses such as those involved in graft re jections, different molecular structures responsible for intercellular interactions such as interleukins, cytokins, idiotype-antiidiotype recognition and others. While furthering our understanding of the local interactions (molecular and cellular) in volved in the immune response, these discoveries have led to a questioning of the simplicities of the classical clonal selection theory. It is clear today that every single immune response is a cooperative phenomenon involving several different molecular and cellular interactions taking place in a coupled manner. In addition, cross reactivity to different antigens has shown that responses of the whole im mune system to different antigens are not completely isolated from one another and that the history of encounters with different antigens plays a crucial role in the maturation of the whole system. Thus, problems of complexity, generation of di versity and self-organization have entered the field of immunology.
Categories: Medical

Theories of Immune Networks

Theories of Immune Networks

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen.

Author: Henri Atlan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642839363

Category: Medical

Page: 117

View: 427

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen. Clonal selection was the name of the theory based on this idea and it has provided the main concepts to account for the known features of the immune response. More recently, immunologists have discovered a wealth of new facts, in the form of different regulatory cells (helpers, suppressors, antigen presenting cells), genetic determinations of immune responses such as those involved in graft re jections, different molecular structures responsible for intercellular interactions such as interleukins, cytokins, idiotype-antiidiotype recognition and others. While furthering our understanding of the local interactions (molecular and cellular) in volved in the immune response, these discoveries have led to a questioning of the simplicities of the classical clonal selection theory. It is clear today that every single immune response is a cooperative phenomenon involving several different molecular and cellular interactions taking place in a coupled manner. In addition, cross reactivity to different antigens has shown that responses of the whole im mune system to different antigens are not completely isolated from one another and that the history of encounters with different antigens plays a crucial role in the maturation of the whole system. Thus, problems of complexity, generation of di versity and self-organization have entered the field of immunology.
Categories: Medical

Theories of Immune Networks

Theories of Immune Networks

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen.

Author: Henri Atlan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540516786

Category: Medical

Page: 117

View: 202

For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen. Clonal selection was the name of the theory based on this idea and it has provided the main concepts to account for the known features of the immune response. More recently, immunologists have discovered a wealth of new facts, in the form of different regulatory cells (helpers, suppressors, antigen presenting cells), genetic determinations of immune responses such as those involved in graft re jections, different molecular structures responsible for intercellular interactions such as interleukins, cytokins, idiotype-antiidiotype recognition and others. While furthering our understanding of the local interactions (molecular and cellular) in volved in the immune response, these discoveries have led to a questioning of the simplicities of the classical clonal selection theory. It is clear today that every single immune response is a cooperative phenomenon involving several different molecular and cellular interactions taking place in a coupled manner. In addition, cross reactivity to different antigens has shown that responses of the whole im mune system to different antigens are not completely isolated from one another and that the history of encounters with different antigens plays a crucial role in the maturation of the whole system. Thus, problems of complexity, generation of di versity and self-organization have entered the field of immunology.
Categories: Medical

Artificial Immune Systems A New Computational Intelligence Approach

Artificial Immune Systems  A New Computational Intelligence Approach

Atlan, H. & Cohen, I. R. (1989), Theories of Immune Networks, Springer- Verlag. Bernardes, A. T. & dos Santos, R. M. Z. (1997), "Immune Network at the Edge ...

Author: Leandro Nunes Castro

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1852335947

Category: Computers

Page: 357

View: 560

Recently there has been a growing interest in the use of the biological immune system as a source of inspiration for solving complicated computational problems. The immune system involves many information-processing abilities including pattern recognition, learning, memory and inherent distributed parallel processing and for these, and other reasons, it has received a significant amount of interest as a metaphor within computing. This emerging field is known as Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), and applications of AIS include, machine learning, fault diagnosis, computer security, scheduling, virus detection and optimisation.
Categories: Computers

Workshop on stochastic modelling in biology

Workshop on stochastic modelling in biology

... I . R . ( 1989 ) Natural id - anti - id networks and the immunological homunculus
, in : Theories of Immune Networks , eds . Atlan , H . and Cohen , I . R . , Springer
Verlag , Heidelberg Paul W . E . ( 1989 ) The immune system : An introduction ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B5022411

Category:

Page:

View: 826

Categories:

The Chiropractic Theories

The Chiropractic Theories

TRADITIONAL THEORIES OF IMMUNITY According to traditional immunology, ... Network Theory Perelson (32) described immune network theory as a system providing ...

Author: Robert A. Leach

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 9780683307474

Category: Medical

Page: 463

View: 507

Designed to be a primary reference for chiropractic students, this is a concise, scientific survey of chiropractic theories based on current research. Completely restructured for the Fourth Edition, this book focuses on the most current biomedical research on the three phase model of vertebral subluxation complex (V.S.C.). This is a useful reference for students studying for the National Board of Chiropractors Examination Parts II, III, and IV, as well as a post-graduate reference providing information on the chiropractic perspective on health and wellness, nutrition, exercise, psychosocial issues, and case management principles for wellness care. This new text focuses on developing critical thinking among chiropractic students, and includes new contributors and new chapters on principles of statistics and a minimum process for validation of chiropractic theory.
Categories: Medical

Theory And Control Of Dynamical Systems Applications To Systems In Biology

Theory And Control Of Dynamical Systems  Applications To Systems In Biology

A network theory of the immune system. Eur. J. Immunol. 5, 350–354. Richter, P. H. (1978). The network idea and the immune response.

Author: Andersson Stig I

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814555258

Category:

Page: 252

View: 839

For the mathematical modeling of complex system behavior, dynamical systems play an increasing role. The flexibility and very rich phenomenology exhibited by such systems make them indispensible in this context. Control theory for dynamical systems is also a highly active field of research where a number of important results have been achieved recently.This combined course and workshop deals with recent results regarding dynamical systems and control theory, primarily in differential geometric terms as well as the applications of these fields to biological systems, with an emphasis on various aspects of the immune system and on neural networks.
Categories:

Theoretical and Experimental Insights into Immunology

Theoretical and Experimental Insights into Immunology

In: Atlan H, Cohen IR (eds) Theories of Immune Networks. Springer, Berlin Boer RJ de, Kevrekidis I, Perelson AS (1990) A simple idiotypic network model with ...

Author: Alan S. Perelson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642769771

Category: Medical

Page: 480

View: 800

Immunology is largely a science of observation and experimentation, and these approaches have lead to great increases in our knowledge of the genes, molecules and cells of the immune system. This book is an up-to-date discussion of the current state of modelling and theoretical work in immunology, of the impact of theory on experiment, and of future directions for theoretical research. Among the topics discussed are the function and evolution of the immune system, computer modelling of the humoral immune response and of idiotypic networks and idiotypic mimicry, T-cell memory, cryptic peptides, new views and models of AIDS and autoimmunity, and the shaping of the immune repertoire by early presented antigens and self immunoglobulin.
Categories: Medical

The Generation of Diversity

The Generation of Diversity

Clonal Selection Theory and the Rise of Molecular Immunology Alfred I. Tauber, Scott H. Podolsky ... In Theories of Immune Networks , ed .

Author: Alfred I. Tauber

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674001826

Category: Science

Page: 508

View: 141

This book is an intellectual history of the major theoretical problem in immunology and its resolution in the post-World War II period. In recent years immunology has been one of the most exciting--and successful--fields of biomedical research; this book provides essential background for understanding the conceptual conflicts occurring in the field.
Categories: Science

Large Scale Network Centric Distributed Systems

Large Scale Network Centric Distributed Systems

Immune networkswere proposed by Jerne[135] based on several shortcomings of traditional selfnonselfdiscrimination theories. The theory of immune networks is ...

Author: Hamid Sarbazi-Azad

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118714829

Category: Computers

Page: 760

View: 181

A highly accessible reference offering a broad range of topics and insights on large scale network-centric distributed systems Evolving from the fields of high-performance computing and networking, large scale network-centric distributed systems continues to grow as one of the most important topics in computing and communication and many interdisciplinary areas. Dealing with both wired and wireless networks, this book focuses on the design and performance issues of such systems. Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems provides in-depth coverage ranging from ground-level hardware issues (such as buffer organization, router delay, and flow control) to the high-level issues immediately concerning application or system users (including parallel programming, middleware, and OS support for such computing systems). Arranged in five parts, it explains and analyzes complex topics to an unprecedented degree: Part 1: Multicore and Many-Core (Mc) Systems-on-Chip Part 2: Pervasive/Ubiquitous Computing and Peer-to-Peer Systems Part 3: Wireless/Mobile Networks Part 4: Grid and Cloud Computing Part 5: Other Topics Related to Network-Centric Computing and Its Applications Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems is an incredibly useful resource for practitioners, postgraduate students, postdocs, and researchers.
Categories: Computers

Scientific Activities

Scientific Activities

In : Theories of Immune Networks . Atlan , H. and G. Weisbuch , eds . Berlin ,
Springer : 63-70 ( 1989 ) . - : Shape space : an approach to the evaluation of
cross - reactivity effects , stability , and the controlability in the immune system .
Immunol .

Author: Mekhon Ṿaitsman le-madaʻ

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105015067049

Category: Science

Page:

View: 666

Categories: Science

Artificial Immune Systems

Artificial Immune Systems

A number of theories abound, from antigenic retention, to immune networks. A theory first proposed by Jerne (1974) suggested that B-cell memory was ...

Author: Giuseppe Nicosia

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540302209

Category: Computers

Page: 448

View: 829

Arti?cial Immune Systems have come of age. They are no longer an obscure computersciencetechnique,workedonbyacoupleoffarsightedresearchgroups. Today, researchers across the globe are working on new computer algorithms inspired by the workings of the immune system. This vigorous ?eld of research investigates how immunobiology can assist our technology, and along the way is beginning to help biologists understand their unique problems. AIS is now old enough to understand its roots, its context in the research community, and its exciting future. It has grown too big to be con?ned to s- cial sessions in evolutionary computation conferences. AIS researchers are now forming their own community and identity. The International Conference on Arti?cial Immune Systems is proud to be the premiere conference in the area. As its organizers, we were honored to have such a variety of innovative and original scienti?c papers presented this year. ICARIS 2004 was the third international conference dedicated entirely to the ?eld of Arti?cial Immune Systems (AIS). It was held in Catania, on the beautiful island of Sicily, Italy, during September 13–16, 2004. While hosting the conference, the city of Catania gave the participants the opportunity to enjoy the richness of its historical and cultural atmosphere and the beauty of its natural resources, the sea, and the Etna volcano.
Categories: Computers

Mathematical Modeling of the Immune System in Homeostasis Infection and Disease

Mathematical Modeling of the Immune System in Homeostasis  Infection and Disease

Grossman Z. The concept of idiotypic network: deficient, or premature? In: Atlan, H, Cohen, IR, editors. Theories of Immune Networks.

Author: Gennady Bocharov

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889634613

Category:

Page:

View: 357

The immune system provides the host organism with defense mechanisms against invading pathogens and tumor development and it plays an active role in tissue and organ regeneration. Deviations from the normal physiological functioning of the immune system can lead to the development of diseases with various pathologies including autoimmune diseases and cancer. Modern research in immunology is characterized by an unprecedented level of detail that has progressed towards viewing the immune system as numerous components that function together as a whole network. Currently, we are facing significant difficulties in analyzing the data being generated from high-throughput technologies for understanding immune system dynamics and functions, a problem known as the ‘curse of dimensionality’. As the mainstream research in mathematical immunology is based on low-resolution models, a fundamental question is how complex the mathematical models should be? To respond to this challenging issue, we advocate a hypothesis-driven approach to formulate and apply available mathematical modelling technologies for understanding the complexity of the immune system. Moreover, pure empirical analyses of immune system behavior and the system’s response to external perturbations can only produce a static description of the individual components of the immune system and the interactions between them. Shifting our view of the immune system from a static schematic perception to a dynamic multi-level system is a daunting task. It requires the development of appropriate mathematical methodologies for the holistic and quantitative analysis of multi-level molecular and cellular networks. Their coordinated behavior is dynamically controlled via distributed feedback and feedforward mechanisms which altogether orchestrate immune system functions. The molecular regulatory loops inherent to the immune system that mediate cellular behaviors, e.g. exhaustion, suppression, activation and tuning, can be analyzed using mathematical categories such as multi-stability, switches, ultra-sensitivity, distributed system, graph dynamics, or hierarchical control. GB is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant 18-11-00171). AM is also supported by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness and FEDER grant no. SAF2016-75505-R, the “María de Maeztu” Programme for Units of Excellence in R&D (MDM-2014-0370) and the Russian Science Foundation (grant 18-11-00171).
Categories:

Immunity Based Systems

Immunity Based Systems

(1989) Theories of Immune Networks. SpringerVerlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York 6. Avizeinis A. (1985) The nversion approach to faulttolerant software.

Author: Yoshiteru Ishida

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783662078631

Category: Computers

Page: 177

View: 737

After I came to know Jerne's network theory on the immune system, I became fascinated with the immune system as an information system. The main pro totypes for biological information systems have been the neural systems and the brain. However, the immune system is not only an interesting informa tion system but it may provide a design paradigm for artificial information systems. With such a consideration, I initiated a project titled "autonomous decentralized recognition mechanism of the immune network and its applica tion to distributed information processing" in 1990 under a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on a Priority Area ("Autonomous Distributed Systems") supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture. During the project, I promoted the idea that the immune system could be a prototype of autonomous distributed systems. After the project, we organized an international workshop on immunity based systems in 1996 in conjunction with the International Conference on Multi-Agent Systems held in Kyoto, Japan. Recently, there have been several international conferences related to topics inspired by the immune system and an increasing number of research papers related to the topic. In writing this book, a decade after the project, I still believe that the immune system can be a prototype, a compact but sophisticated system that nature has shown us for building artificial information systems in this network age of the twenty-first century.
Categories: Computers

Ecological Physical Chemistry

Ecological Physical Chemistry

Network Regulation of Autoimmunity : An Automaton Model . J . Autoimmunity , 2
, 1989 , pp . 613 - 625 . 15 ) H . Atlan and S . H . Snyder . Simulation of the
Immune Cellular Response by Small Neural Networks , in : Theories of Immune ...

Author: C. Rossi

Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited

ISBN: UOM:39015025149751

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 651

View: 960

A great debate has arisen about the necessity to distinguish between different physical chemistry approaches for investigating the behavior of natural systems. On the one side, it is necessary to recognize that the use of time-reversible classical and quantum physical chemistry approaches for studying molecular systems yields a big improvement in man's knowledge. On the other hand it is imperative to have new approaches, new time-irreversible theories, able to describe these relationships. Ecological physical chemistry is a new transdisciplinary field of study that addresses the relationships between complex molecular systems and/or organisms. This new field goes beyond the normal conceptions of scientific disciplines and tries to integrate and harmonize many different disciplinary perspectives. Ecological physical chemistry thus, wants to develop new theories and strategies for investigating the complexity of nature, and the present book is the first report on this intriguing new scientific discipline.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Intelligent Computing Theories and Methodologies

Intelligent Computing Theories and Methodologies

Kim, S.-S.: Time-delay recurrent neural network for temporal correlations and prediction. ... NN using self-organized network inspired by immune algorithm.

Author: De-Shuang Huang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319221861

Category: Computers

Page: 755

View: 226

This two-volume set LNCS 9225 and LNCS 9226 constitutes - in conjunction with the volume LNAI 9227 - the refereed proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Intelligent Computing, ICIC 2015, held in Fuzhou, China, in August 2015. The total of 191 full and 42 short papers presented in the three ICIC 2015 volumes was carefully reviewed and selected from 671 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections such as evolutionary computation and learning; compressed sensing, sparse coding and social computing; neural networks, nature inspired computing and optimization; pattern recognition and signal processing; image processing; biomedical informatics theory and methods; differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and niche technology; intelligent computing and knowledge discovery and data mining; soft computing and machine learning; computational biology, protein structure and function prediction; genetic algorithms; artificial bee colony algorithms; swarm intelligence and optimization; social computing; information security; virtual reality and human-computer interaction; healthcare informatics theory and methods; unsupervised learning; collective intelligence; intelligent computing in robotics; intelligent computing in communication networks; intelligent control and automation; intelligent data analysis and prediction; gene expression array analysis; gene regulation modeling and analysis; protein-protein interaction prediction; biology inspired computing and optimization; analysis and visualization of large biological data sets; motif detection; biomarker discovery; modeling; simulation; and optimization of biological systems; biomedical data modeling and mining; intelligent computing in biomedical signal/image analysis; intelligent computing in brain imaging; neuroinformatics; cheminformatics; intelligent computing in computational biology; computational genomics; special session on biomedical data integration and mining in the era of big data; special session on big data analytics; special session on artificial intelligence for ambient assisted living; and special session on swarm intelligence with discrete dynamics.
Categories: Computers

Stochastic Modelling In Biology Relevant Mathematical Concepts And Recent Applications

Stochastic Modelling In Biology  Relevant Mathematical Concepts And Recent Applications

REFERENCES [1]Cohen, I.R. (1989) Natural id-anti-id networks and the immunological homunculus, in: Theories of Immune Networks, eds. Atlan, H. and Cohen, ...

Author: Tautu Petre

Publisher: #N/A

ISBN: 9789814611923

Category:

Page: 456

View: 127

These proceedings focus on future prospects as well as on the present status in some important areas of applied probability and mathematical biology. Some papers have educational intentions regarding the mathematical modelling of special biological situations. The workshop was the third one in Heidelberg dealing with stochastic modelling in biology, e.g., cell biology, embryology, oncology, epidemiology and genetics.
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Handbook of Research on Artificial Immune Systems and Natural Computing Applying Complex Adaptive Technologies

Handbook of Research on Artificial Immune Systems and Natural Computing  Applying Complex Adaptive Technologies

... metaphor for solving computer security or designing optimization algorithms based on clonal selection theory and immune network theory from immunology.

Author: Mo, Hongwei

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781605663111

Category: Computers

Page: 634

View: 995

"This book offers new ideas and recent developments in Natural Computing, especially on artificial immune systems"--Provided by publisher.
Categories: Computers

Artificial Immune Systems and Their Applications

Artificial Immune Systems and Their Applications

Perelson A S, 1989, Immunological Reviews 110, 5 42. Atlan H and Cohen I R, 1989, (eds.) Theories of Immune Networks (Springer) 43.

Author: Dipankar Dasgupta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642599019

Category: Computers

Page: 306

View: 352

This is a pioneering work on the emerging field of artificial immune systems-highly distributed systems based on the principles of the natural system. Like artificial neural networks, artificial immune systems can learn new information and recall previously learned information. This book provides an overview of artificial immune systems, explaining its applications in areas such as immunological memory, anomaly detection algorithms, and modeling the effects of prior infection on vaccine efficacy.
Categories: Computers

Genetics of the Immune Response

Genetics of the Immune Response

Under network theory there are no grounds for suspicion and the heroic explanation proposed by Jerne (using many additional guesses) illustrates my point ...

Author: Erna Moller

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468444698

Category: Medical

Page: 316

View: 206

The 55th Nobel Symposium entitled "Genetics of the Immune Response" took place in Saltsjobaden, Sweden, June 15 - 17, 1982. The topic was selected for several reasons, such as the rapid progress in the genetic analysis of immunoglobulin and MHC genes and the elucidation of the mechanism of switch to different immunoglobulin classes and subclasses. The genetic advances formed a basis for discussions of problems relating to regulation of T cell subsets, mechanisms of activation and regulation of B cell differentiation and an analysis of the network hypothesis. The format of the symposium was arranged so as to include two sessions in the morning and two in the afternoon. Each session was introduced by one speaker, followed by free discussion. The intro ductory lectures are included in the proceedings. The participants summarized their contributions to the discussion in written form. In addi tion to the closed sessions, there was one open session at the Karolinska Institute with lectures by Drs. L. Hood, C. Milstein, D. Baltimore, J. Klein and B. Benacerraf, which are not included in these procee din gs. The symposium was sponsored by the Nobel Foundation and its Nobel Symposium Committee through grants from the Tercentenary Fund of the Bank of Sweden and the Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation. The Swedish Medical Research Council, the Swedish Cancer Society and the Swedish Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs also made contri butions.
Categories: Medical