For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen.
Author: Henri Atlan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
For a long time, immunology has been dominated by the idea of a simple linear cause-effect relationship between the exposure to an antigen and the production of specific antibodies against that antigen. Clonal selection was the name of the theory based on this idea and it has provided the main concepts to account for the known features of the immune response. More recently, immunologists have discovered a wealth of new facts, in the form of different regulatory cells (helpers, suppressors, antigen presenting cells), genetic determinations of immune responses such as those involved in graft re jections, different molecular structures responsible for intercellular interactions such as interleukins, cytokins, idiotype-antiidiotype recognition and others. While furthering our understanding of the local interactions (molecular and cellular) in volved in the immune response, these discoveries have led to a questioning of the simplicities of the classical clonal selection theory. It is clear today that every single immune response is a cooperative phenomenon involving several different molecular and cellular interactions taking place in a coupled manner. In addition, cross reactivity to different antigens has shown that responses of the whole im mune system to different antigens are not completely isolated from one another and that the history of encounters with different antigens plays a crucial role in the maturation of the whole system. Thus, problems of complexity, generation of di versity and self-organization have entered the field of immunology.
Author: Leandro Nunes CastroPublish On: 2002-09-23
Atlan, H. & Cohen, I. R. (1989), Theories of Immune Networks, Springer- Verlag.
Bernardes, A. T. & dos Santos, R. M. Z. (1997), "Immune Network at the Edge of
Chaos", / theor. Biol, 186, pp. 173-187. Bersini, H. & Calenbuhr, V. (1997), ...
Author: Leandro Nunes Castro
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Recently there has been a growing interest in the use of the biological immune system as a source of inspiration for solving complicated computational problems. The immune system involves many information-processing abilities including pattern recognition, learning, memory and inherent distributed parallel processing and for these, and other reasons, it has received a significant amount of interest as a metaphor within computing. This emerging field is known as Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), and applications of AIS include, machine learning, fault diagnosis, computer security, scheduling, virus detection and optimisation.
TRADITIONAL THEORIES OF IMMUNITY According to traditional immunology,
specific humoral immunity is based on a classical ... Network Theory Perelson (
32) described immune network theory as a system providing for both stability and
Author: Robert A. Leach
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Designed to be a primary reference for chiropractic students, this is a concise, scientific survey of chiropractic theories based on current research. Completely restructured for the Fourth Edition, this book focuses on the most current biomedical research on the three phase model of vertebral subluxation complex (V.S.C.). This is a useful reference for students studying for the National Board of Chiropractors Examination Parts II, III, and IV, as well as a post-graduate reference providing information on the chiropractic perspective on health and wellness, nutrition, exercise, psychosocial issues, and case management principles for wellness care. This new text focuses on developing critical thinking among chiropractic students, and includes new contributors and new chapters on principles of statistics and a minimum process for validation of chiropractic theory.
A network theory of the immune system. Eur. J. Immunol. 5, 350–354. Richter,
P. H. (1978). The network idea and the immune response. In: Theoretical
Immunology, eds., G. I. Bell, A. S. Perelson and G. H. Pimbley, Jr., Marcel Dekker,
Author: Andersson Stig I
Publisher: World Scientific
For the mathematical modeling of complex system behavior, dynamical systems play an increasing role. The flexibility and very rich phenomenology exhibited by such systems make them indispensible in this context. Control theory for dynamical systems is also a highly active field of research where a number of important results have been achieved recently.This combined course and workshop deals with recent results regarding dynamical systems and control theory, primarily in differential geometric terms as well as the applications of these fields to biological systems, with an emphasis on various aspects of the immune system and on neural networks.
A number of theories abound, from antigenic retention, to immune networks. A theory first proposed by Jerne (1974) suggested that B-cell memory was
maintained via an Idiotypic network. This theory attempts to explain how B-cells
Author: Giuseppe Nicosia
Arti?cial Immune Systems have come of age. They are no longer an obscure computersciencetechnique,workedonbyacoupleoffarsightedresearchgroups. Today, researchers across the globe are working on new computer algorithms inspired by the workings of the immune system. This vigorous ?eld of research investigates how immunobiology can assist our technology, and along the way is beginning to help biologists understand their unique problems. AIS is now old enough to understand its roots, its context in the research community, and its exciting future. It has grown too big to be con?ned to s- cial sessions in evolutionary computation conferences. AIS researchers are now forming their own community and identity. The International Conference on Arti?cial Immune Systems is proud to be the premiere conference in the area. As its organizers, we were honored to have such a variety of innovative and original scienti?c papers presented this year. ICARIS 2004 was the third international conference dedicated entirely to the ?eld of Arti?cial Immune Systems (AIS). It was held in Catania, on the beautiful island of Sicily, Italy, during September 13–16, 2004. While hosting the conference, the city of Catania gave the participants the opportunity to enjoy the richness of its historical and cultural atmosphere and the beauty of its natural resources, the sea, and the Etna volcano.
It embodies the richness of AIS research, such as internet and control theory
inspired by the immune network and ... In the second part, many kinds of nature
inspired computing methods or theories are presented, including evolutionary ...
Author: Mo, Hongwei
Publisher: IGI Global
"This book offers new ideas and recent developments in Natural Computing, especially on artificial immune systems"--Provided by publisher.
T-cells, the part of the immune system, affect B-cells during the immune response
process. It is revealed from the literature that two theories have been identified,
namely clone selection and immune network, to explain how the immune ...
Author: Laha, Dipak
Publisher: IGI Global
During the last two decades, computer and information technologies have forced great changes in the ways businesses manage operations in meeting the desired quality of products and services, customer demands, competition, and other challenges. The Handbook of Computational Intelligence in Manufacturing and Production Management focuses on new developments in computational intelligence in areas such as forecasting, scheduling, production planning, inventory control, and aggregate planning, among others. This comprehensive collection of research provides cutting-edge knowledge on information technology developments for both researchers and professionals in fields such as operations and production management, Web engineering, artificial intelligence, and information resources management.
( 4 ) H. Atlan , and I.R. Cohen , eds . , Theories of Immune Networks , Springer -
Verlag , Berlin , 1989 . ( 5 ) A.S. Perelson , “ Immune network theory ” , Immunol .
ogy Review , no . 10 , pp . 5-36 , 1989 . ( 6 ) T. Ikegami , “ Dynamical behavior of ...
Proceedings of the May 1997 symposium. MVL researchers from around the world present 37 papers in sessions on algebra, device technology, circuits, fuzzy logic, logic design, philosophical aspects, spectral techniques, testing and fault simulation, and applications. In addition, three invited addresses--recent developments in DNA- computing; many-valuedness and uncertainty; and ternary decision diagrams (survey)--further illustrate the diverse nature of multiple-valued research. Topics of the papers include finding composition trees for multiple-valued functions; hyperclones on a finite set; and multiple-valued logic as a programming language. No index. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.
Dynamical behavior of discrete models of Jerne's network. In Theories of Immune Networks (H. Atlan, ed.). Springer, New York. Weisbuch, G. (1989b). Dynamics of
Complex Systems: An Introduction to Networks of Automata. Interedition, Paris.
Author: Stuart A. Kauffman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Stuart Kauffman here presents a brilliant new paradigm for evolutionary biology, one that extends the basic concepts of Darwinian evolution to accommodate recent findings and perspectives from the fields of biology, physics, chemistry and mathematics. The book drives to the heart of the exciting debate on the origins of life and maintenance of order in complex biological systems. It focuses on the concept of self-organization: the spontaneous emergence of order that is widely observed throughout nature Kauffman argues that self-organization plays an important role in the Darwinian process of natural selection. Yet until now no systematic effort has been made to incorporate the concept of self-organization into evolutionary theory. The construction requirements which permit complex systems to adapt are poorly understood, as is the extent to which selection itself can yield systems able to adapt more successfully. This book explores these themes. It shows how complex systems, contrary to expectations, can spontaneously exhibit stunning degrees of order, and how this order, in turn, is essential for understanding the emergence and development of life on Earth. Topics include the new biotechnology of applied molecular evolution, with its important implications for developing new drugs and vaccines; the balance between order and chaos observed in many naturally occurring systems; new insights concerning the predictive power of statistical mechanics in biology; and other major issues. Indeed, the approaches investigated here may prove to be the new center around which biological science itself will evolve. The work is written for all those interested in the cutting edge of research in the life sciences.
Negative selection, clonal selection, and immune network theory are the three
most popular theories of the current AIS research [3, 8]. Negative selection [9-11]
mimics the way a human body detects and destroys harmful antigens. A human ...
Author: Peter Bentley
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Artificial Immune Systems, ICARIS 2008, held in Phuket, Thailand, in August 2008. The 40 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 67 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on computational immunology, applied AIS, and theoretical AIS. Position papers and conceptual papers are also included.
An Associative Memory Based on the Immune Networks: Perspectives on Internal
Image with Antibody Dynamics Chung-Ming Ou1 ... Mathematical theory of
associative memory is also explored, particularly, combining network structure
Author: Derong Liu
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Brain Inspired Cognitive Systems, BICS 2013, held in Beijing, China in June 2013. The 45 high-quality papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 68 submissions. BICS 2013 aims to provide a high-level international forum for scientists, engineers, and educators to present the state of the art of brain inspired cognitive systems research and applications in diverse fields.
( 23 ) N. K. Jerne , “ The Immune System , ” Sci . Am . , 1 ( 1973 ) 52-60 . [ 24 ] Z.
Grossman , “ The Concept of Idiotypic Network : Deficient or Premature ? " in Theories of Immune Networks , edited by H. Atlan and I. R. Cohen ( Springer -
PLoS Biology, 7, e1000081. Jaeger, J., Surkova, S., Blagov, M., et al. (2004).
Dynamic control of positional information in the early Drosophila embryo. Nature,
430, 368–71. Jerne, N.K. (1974). Towards the network theory of the immune
Author: Alessandro Minelli
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Is it possible to explain and predict the development of living things? What is development? Articulate answers to these seemingly innocuous questions are far from straightforward. To date, no systematic, targeted effort has been made to construct a unifying theory of development. This novel work offers a unique exploration of the foundations of ontogeny by asking how the development of living things should be understood. It explores the key concepts of developmental biology, asks whether general principles of development can be discovered, and examines the role of models and theories. The two editors (one a biologist with long interest in the theoretical aspects of his discipline, the other a philosopher of science who has mainly worked on biological systems) have assembled a team of leading contributors who are representative of the scientific and philosophical community within which a diversity of thoughts are growing, and out of which a theory of development may eventually emerge. They analyse a wealth of approaches to concepts, models and theories of development, such as gene regulatory networks, accounts based on systems biology and on physics of soft matter, the different articulations of evolution and development, symbiont-induced development, as well as the widely discussed concepts of positional information and morphogenetic field, the idea of a 'programme' of development and its critiques, and the long-standing opposition between preformationist and epigenetic conceptions of development. Towards a Theory of Development is primarily aimed at students and researchers in the fields of 'evo-devo', developmental biology, theoretical biology, systems biology, biophysics, and the philosophy of science.
If natural selection explains adaptation problems, selective type theories suggest
that particular adaptations are no problems at all. The goal of such theories is to
construct a system like the immune network, the brain, or genomic networks, ...
Author: Mathieu Marion
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
By North-American standards, philosophy is not new in Quebec: the first men tion of philosophy lectures given by a Jesuit in the College de Quebec (founded 1635) dates from 1665, and the oldest logic manuscript dates from 1679. In English-speaking universities such as McGill (founded 1829), philosophy began to be taught later, during the second half of the 19th century. The major influence on English-speaking philosophers was, at least initially, that of Scottish Empiricism. On the other hand, the strong influence of the Catholic Church on French-Canadian society meant that the staff of the facultes of the French-speaking universities consisted, until recently, almost entirely of Thomist philosophers. There was accordingly little or no work in modern Formal Logic and Philosophy of Science and precious few contacts between the philosophical communities. In the late forties, Hugues Leblanc was a young student wanting to learn Formal Logic. He could not find anyone in Quebec to teach him and he went to study at Harvard University under the supervision of W. V. Quine. His best friend Maurice L' Abbe had left, a year earlier, for Princeton to study with Alonzo Church. After receiving his Ph. D from Harvard in 1948, Leblanc started his profes sional career at Bryn Mawr College, where he stayed until 1967. He then went to Temple University, where he taught until his retirement in 1992, serving as Chair of the Department of Philosophy from 1973 until 1979.
We extracted an immunity-based agent approach from self identifying/defining/
maintaining feature of immune systems. ... The Concept of Idiotypic Network:
Deficient or Premature? in Theories of Immune Networks, H. Atlan and I.R.Cohen
6 Conclusion We discussed the immune system focusing on the informational
features that can be prototype for the autonomous decentralized systems. By
exploring the system aspect of the immune system outlined by the network theory
Author: IEEE Computer Society
Publisher: IEEE Computer Society
Proceedings of the April 1997 symposium on novel network applications and supporting hardware/software technologies in the network and computer field. Papers are grouped in sections on multiagent systems, telecommunication services, distributed algorithms, service development, distributed system paradigms, architecture, interoperability and workflo
We extracted an immunity - based agent approach from self identifying / defining /
maintaining feature of immune systems . ... The Concept of Idiotypic Network :
Deficient or Premature ? in Theories of Immune Networks , H . Atlan and I . R ...
... I . R . ( 1989 ) Natural id - anti - id networks and the immunological homunculus
, in : Theories of Immune Networks , eds . Atlan , H . and Cohen , I . R . , Springer
Verlag , Heidelberg Paul W . E . ( 1989 ) The immune system : An introduction ...
Introduction The vertebrate immune system has several useful mechanisms from
the viewpoint of of information processing . Among the many immunological
models , we can stress the immune network theory [ 6 ] and the clonal selection
Author: Carlos H. C. Ribeiro
With 46 papers from the November 2000 conference in Rio de Janeiro, this volume represents the work of computer scientists, artificial intelligence researchers, and engineers from around the world. They address issues like neurosymbolic processing, neural computation, scalars, CDMA and TCMA based neural nets, genetic algorithms, PARMA modeling, hierarchical neural models, web text mining, inverse kinematics problems in robot control, image compression, and morphological rules of similarity. Also included are abstracts of 24 other papers, originally written in Portugese or Spanish. Name index only. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.
Author: IEEE Neural Networks CouncilPublish On: 1996
May 20-22, 1996, Symposion & Toyoda Auditorium, Nagoya University, Japan
IEEE Neural Networks Council. affinity by higher rate ... ( 2 ] H . Atlan and I . R .
Cohen , Eds , Theories of Immune Networks , Springer - Verlag , 1989 . ( 3 ) Y .
Author: IEEE Neural Networks Council
Publisher: Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers(IEEE)
This conference presents a new computing technology with powerful applications. Many of the applications in fields like robotics and manufacturing incorporate advances in neural networks and fuzzy logic."