Rather than use mathematical notation or an unfamiliar academic programming language like Haskell or Lisp, this book uses Ruby in a reductionist manner to present functional programming and lambda calculus.

Author: Tom Stuart

Publisher: O'Reilly Media, Incorporated

ISBN: 1449329276

Category: Computers

Page: 275

View: 452

Finally, you can learn computation theory and programming language design in an engaging, practical way. Understanding Computation explains theoretical computer science in a context you’ll recognize, helping you appreciate why these ideas matter and how they can inform your day-to-day programming. Rather than use mathematical notation or an unfamiliar academic programming language like Haskell or Lisp, this book uses Ruby in a reductionist manner to present functional programming and lambda calculus. It’s ideal for programmers versed in modern languages, with little or no formal training in computer science. Discover the theoretical underpinnings of your work with Understanding Computation. Learn fundamental computing concepts, such as Turing equivalence in languages Discover how programs can handle difficult or impossible problems Explore how many features a programming language needs Examine how computers can help you write correct programs Understand how to build data structures without mutation of state Learn how programmers can make a simple language like the lambda calculus actually run on a computer

As we assess the nondeterministic computation's consumption of resources— both time and space—we do not charge the computation for the resources required to perform the search. But we do charge any deterministic simulation of the ...

Author: Arnold L. Rosenberg

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783031100550

Category: Computers

Page: 577

View: 684

Computation theory is a discipline that uses mathematical concepts and tools to expose the nature of "computation" and to explain a broad range of computational phenomena: Why is it harder to perform some computations than others? Are the differences in difficulty that we observe inherent, or are they artifacts of the way we try to perform the computations? How does one reason about such questions? This unique textbook strives to endow students with conceptual and manipulative tools necessary to make computation theory part of their professional lives. The work achieves this goal by means of three stratagems that set its approach apart from most other texts on the subject. For starters, it develops the necessary mathematical concepts and tools from the concepts' simplest instances, thereby helping students gain operational control over the required mathematics. Secondly, it organizes development of theory around four "pillars," enabling students to see computational topics that have the same intellectual origins in physical proximity to one another. Finally, the text illustrates the "big ideas" that computation theory is built upon with applications of these ideas within "practical" domains in mathematics, computer science, computer engineering, and even further afield. Suitable for advanced undergraduate students and beginning graduates, this textbook augments the "classical" models that traditionally support courses on computation theory with novel models inspired by "real, modern" computational topics,such as crowd-sourced computing, mobile computing, robotic path planning, and volunteer computing. Arnold L. Rosenberg is Distinguished Univ. Professor Emeritus at University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA. Lenwood S. Heath is Professor at Virgina Tech, Blacksburg, USA.

He Works as a consultant, mentor, and Finally, you can learn computation theory and programming language design in an engaging, practical Way. Understanding Computation explains theoretical computer science in a context you'll recognize ...

Author: Tom Stuart

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 9781449330118

Category: Computers

Page: 333

View: 549

This book is for programmers who are curious about programming languages and the theory of computation, especially those who don't have a formal background in mathematics or computer science. It's for those who are interested in the mind-expanding parts of computer science that deal with programs, languages, and machines, but are discouraged by the mathematical language that's often used to explain them. Instead of complex notation, the book uses working code to illustrate theoretical ideas and turn them into interactive experiments that readers can explore at their own pace.

Understanding Computation & Exploring Nature as Computation Since the days of Newton and Leibniz, scientists have been constructing elaborate views of the world. In the past century, quantum mechanics revolutionised our understanding of ...

Author: Hector Zenil

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814447782

Category: Computers

Page: 856

View: 560

This volume, with a Foreword writer Sir Roger Penrose, discusses the foundations of computation in relation to nature. It focuses on two main questions: What is computation?How does nature compute? The contributors are world-renowned experts who have helped shape a cutting-edge computational understanding of the universe. They discuss computation in the world from a variety of perspectives, ranging from foundational concepts to pragmatic models to ontological conceptions and philosophical implications. The volume provides a state-of-the-art collection of technical papers and non-technical essays, representing a field that assumes information and computation to be key in understanding and explaining the basic structure underpinning physical reality. It also includes a new edition of Konrad Zuse's “Calculating Space” (the MIT translation), and a panel discussion transcription on the topic, featuring worldwide experts in quantum mechanics, physics, cognition, computation and algorithmic complexity. The volume is dedicated to the memory of Alan M Turing — the inventor of universal computation, on the 100th anniversary of his birth, and is part of the Turing Centenary celebrations. Contents:Foreword (R Penrose)PrefaceAcknowledgementsIntroducing the Computable Universe (H Zenil)Historical, Philosophical & Foundational Aspects of Computation:Origins of Digital Computing: Alan Turing, Charles Babbage, & Ada Lovelace (D Swade)Generating, Solving and the Mathematics of Homo Sapiens. E Post's Views on Computation (L De Mol)Machines (R Turner)Effectiveness (N Dershowitz & E Falkovich)Axioms for Computability: Do They Allow a Proof of Church's Thesis? (W Sieg)The Mathematician's Bias — and the Return to Embodied Computation (S B Cooper)Intuitionistic Mathematics and Realizability in the Physical World (A Bauer)What is Computation? Actor Model versus Turing's Model (C Hewitt)Computation in Nature & the Real World:Reaction Systems: A Natural Computing Approach to the Functioning of Living Cells (A Ehrenfeucht, J Kleijn, M Koutny & G Rozenberg)Bacteria, Turing Machines and Hyperbolic Cellular Automata (M Margenstern)Computation and Communication in Unorganized Systems (C Teuscher)The Many Forms of Amorphous Computational Systems (J Wiedermann)Computing on Rings (G J Martínez, A Adamatzky & H V McIntosh)Life as Evolving Software (G J Chaitin)Computability and Algorithmic Complexity in Economics (K V Velupillai & S Zambelli)Blueprint for a Hypercomputer (F A Doria)Computation & Physics & the Physics of Computation:Information-Theoretic Teleodynamics in Natural and Artificial Systems (A F Beavers & C D Harrison)Discrete Theoretical Processes (DTP) (E Fredkin)The Fastest Way of Computing All Universes (J Schmidhuber)The Subjective Computable Universe (M Hutter)What Is Ultimately Possible in Physics? (S Wolfram)Universality, Turing Incompleteness and Observers (K Sutner)Algorithmic Causal Sets for a Computational Spacetime (T Bolognesi)The Computable Universe Hypothesis (M P Szudzik)The Universe is Lawless or “Pantôn chrêmatôn metron anthrôpon einai” (C S Calude, F W Meyerstein & A Salomaa)Is Feasibility in Physics Limited by Fantasy Alone? (C S Calude & K Svozil)The Quantum, Computation & Information:What is Computation? (How) Does Nature Compute? (D Deutsch)The Universe as Quantum Computer (S Lloyd)Quantum Speedup and Temporal Inequalities for Sequential Actions (M Żukowski)The Contextual Computer (A Cabello)A Gödel-Turing Perspective on Quantum States Indistinguishable from Inside (T Breuer)When Humans Do Compute Quantum (P Zizzi)Open Discussion Section:Open Discussion on A Computable Universe (A Bauer, T Bolognesi, A Cabello, C S Calude, L De Mol, F Doria, E Fredkin, C Hewitt, M Hutter, M Margenstern, K Svozil, M Szudzik, C Teuscher, S Wolfram & H Zenil)Live Panel Discussion (transcription):What is Computation? (How) Does Nature Compute? (C S Calude, G J Chaitin, E Fredkin, A J Leggett, R de Ruyter, T Toffoli & S Wolfram)Zuse's Calculating Space:Calculating Space (Rechnender Raum) (K Zuse)Afterword to Konrad Zuse's Calculating Space (A German & H Zenil) Readership: Graduate students who are specialized researchers in computer science, information theory, quantum theory and modern philosophy and the general public who are interested in these subject areas. Keywords:Digital Physics;Computational Universe;Digital Philosophy;Reality Theories of the Universe;Models of the World;Thring Computation RandomnessKey Features:The authors are all prominent researchersNo competing titlesState-of-the-art collection of technical papers and non-technical essays

Existence of various types and kinds of computation, as well as a variety of approaches to the concept of computation, shows complexity of understanding computation in the holistic picture of the world. In this volume, a number of ...

The sausage machine analogy can be enhanced to provide a more complete understanding of time within a computational framework. As explained in Chapter 3, a universal computer of the type originally outlined by Alan Turing needs a small, ...

Author: Philip Tetlow

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781317004844

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 408

View: 359

The World Wide Web is truly astounding. It has changed the way we interact, learn and innovate. It is the largest sociotechnical system humankind has created and is advancing at a pace that leaves most in awe. It is an unavoidable fact that the future of the world is now inextricably linked to the future of the Web. Almost every day it appears to change, to get better and increase its hold on us. For all this we are starting to see underlying stability emerge. The way that Web sites rank in terms of popularity, for example, appears to follow laws with which we are familiar. What is fascinating is that these laws were first discovered, not in fields like computer science or information technology, but in what we regard as more fundamental disciplines like biology, physics and mathematics. Consequently the Web, although synthetic at its surface, seems to be quite 'natural' deeper down, and one of the driving aims of the new field of Web Science is to discover how far down such ’naturalness’ goes. If the Web is natural to its core, that raises some fundamental questions. It forces us, for example, to ask if the central properties of the Web might be more elemental than the truths we cling to from our understandings of the physical world. In essence, it demands that we question the very nature of information. Understanding Information and Computation is about such questions and one possible route to potentially mind-blowing answers.

Rather than use mathematical notation or an unfamiliar academic programming language like Haskell or Lisp, this book uses Ruby in a reductionist manner to present formal semantics, automata theory, and functional programming with the lambda ...

Author: Tom Stuart

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 9781449330101

Category: Computers

Page: 332

View: 215

Finally, you can learn computation theory and programming language design in an engaging, practical way. Understanding Computation explains theoretical computer science in a context you’ll recognize, helping you appreciate why these ideas matter and how they can inform your day-to-day programming. Rather than use mathematical notation or an unfamiliar academic programming language like Haskell or Lisp, this book uses Ruby in a reductionist manner to present formal semantics, automata theory, and functional programming with the lambda calculus. It’s ideal for programmers versed in modern languages, with little or no formal training in computer science. Understand fundamental computing concepts, such as Turing completeness in languages Discover how programs use dynamic semantics to communicate ideas to machines Explore what a computer can do when reduced to its bare essentials Learn how universal Turing machines led to today’s general-purpose computers Perform complex calculations, using simple languages and cellular automata Determine which programming language features are essential for computation Examine how halting and self-referencing make some computing problems unsolvable Analyze programs by using abstract interpretation and type systems

Combined with the exponential growth of computing power, a critical need for understanding computation fundamentals and their application has emerged. The next wave of discovery and innovation comprises powerful computation, ...

Author: Justyna Zander

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439883297

Category: Computers

Page: 520

View: 239

The exponential progress and accessibility of computing has vastly increased data flows and revolutionized the practice of science, engineering, and communication. Computing plays a critical role in advancing research across almost every scientific discipline. Computation for Humanity: Information Technology to Advance Society is a guide for the creation of services, products, and tools that facilitate, support, and enhance progress of humanity toward more sustainable life. This book: Provides a deep understanding of the practical applications of computation to solve human-machine problems Delivers insight into theoretical approaches in an accessible manner Provides a comprehensive overview of computational science and engineering applications in selected disciplines Crosses the boundaries between different domains and shows how they interrelate and complement one another Focuses on grand challenges and issues that matter for the future of humanity Shows different perspectives of computational thinking, understanding, and reasoning Provides a basis for scientific discoveries and enables adopting scientific theories and engineering practices from other disciplines Takes a step back to provide a human-related abstraction level that is not ultimately seen in pure technological elaborations/collections The editors provide a collection of numerous computation-related projects that form a foundation from which to cross-pollinate between different disciplines and further extensive collaboration. They present a clear and profound understanding of computing in today's world, and provide fundamental solutions to some of the most pertinent humanity-related problems.

Author: David A. Rosenblueth,Publish On: 2016-11-21

INTRODUCTION Computational modeling constitutes a crucial step toward the functional understanding of complex cellular networks. In particular, logical modeling has proven suitable for the dynamical analysis of large signaling and ...

Author: David A. Rosenblueth,

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889450428

Category: Electronic book

Page: 115

View: 954

The complexity of living organisms surpasses our unaided habilities of analysis. Hence, computational and mathematical methods are necessary for increasing our understanding of biological systems. At the same time, there has been a phenomenal recent progress allowing the application of novel formal methods to new domains. This progress has spurred a conspicuous optimism in computational biology. This optimism, in turn, has promoted a rapid increase in collaboration between specialists of biology with specialists of computer science. Through sheer complexity, however, many important biological problems are at present intractable, and it is not clear whether we will ever be able to solve such problems. We are in the process of learning what kind of model and what kind of analysis and synthesis techniques to use for a particular problem. Some existing formalisms have been readily used in biological problems, others have been adapted to biological needs, and still others have been especially developed for biological systems. This Research Topic has examples of cases (1) employing existing methods, (2) adapting methods to biology, and (3) developing new methods. We can also see discrete and Boolean models, and the use of both simulators and model checkers. Synthesis is exemplified by manual and by machine-learning methods. We hope that the articles collected in this Research Topic will stimulate new research.

Clearly, there is a need for better understanding of the biological meaning of uber-operons. ... we expect that most of the validation of the predicted uber-operons will come from computational approaches in the near future.

Author: Ying Xu

Publisher: Imperial College Press

ISBN: 9781860949838

Category: Science

Page: 494

View: 881

Over 500 prokaryotic genomes have been sequenced to date, and thousands more have been planned for the next few years. While these genomic sequence data provide unprecedented opportunities for biologists to study the world of prokaryotes, they also raise extremely challenging issues such as how to decode the rich information encoded in these genomes. This comprehensive volume includes a collection of cohesively written chapters on prokaryotic genomes, their organization and evolution, the information they encode, and the computational approaches needed to derive such information. A comparative view of bacterial and archaeal genomes, and how information is encoded differently in them, is also presented. Combining theoretical discussions and computational techniques, the book serves as a valuable introductory textbook for graduate-level microbial genomics and informatics courses.