Utilitarianism Illustrated

Utilitarianism Illustrated

Utilitarianism is one of the most powerful and persuasive approaches to normative ethics in the history of philosophy.

Author: John Stuart Mill


ISBN: 9798686409279


Page: 102

View: 824

Utilitarianism is one of the most powerful and persuasive approaches to normative ethics in the history of philosophy. Though not fully articulated until the 19th century, proto-utilitarian positions can be discerned throughout the history of ethical theory.Though there are many varieties of the view discussed, utilitarianism is generally held to be the view that the morally right action is the action that produces the most good

A History of Utilitarian Ethics

A History of Utilitarian Ethics

I turn now to De L'Esprit itself in order to evaluate Mill's representation of eighteenth-century utilitarianism illustrated by Helvétius as turning on 'selfish' calculation and wanting the comprehension of a person's full character.

Author: Samuel Hollander

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000024036

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 400

View: 519

In this landmark volume, Samuel Hollander presents a fresh and compelling history of moral philosophy from Locke to John Stuart Mill, showing that a ‘moral sense’ can actually be considered compatible with utilitarianism. The book also explores the link between utilitarianism and distributive justice. Hollander engages in close textual exegesis of the works relating to individual authors, while never losing sight of the intellectual relationships between them. Tying together the greatest of the British moral philosophers, this volume reveals an unexpected unity of eighteenth and nineteenth century ethical doctrine at both the individual and social level. Essential reading for advanced students and researchers of the history of economic thought, political economy, history of ethics, history of political thought and intellectual history.
Categories: Business & Economics

Utilitarianism a Very Short Introduction

Utilitarianism  a Very Short Introduction

Utilitarianism is one of the most important and influential secular philosophies of modern times, and has drawn considerable debate and controversy.

Author: Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198728795

Category: Philosophy

Page: 144

View: 138

In this Very Short Introduction Peter Singer and Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek provide an authoritative account of the nature of utilitarianism, from its nineteenth-century origins, to its justification and its varieties. Considering how utilitarians can respond to objections that are often regarded as devastating, they explore the utilitarian answer to the question of whether torture can ever be justified. They also discuss what it is that utilitarians should seek to maximize, paying special attention to the classical utilitarian view that only pleasure or happiness is of intrinsic value. Singer and de Lazari-Radek conclude by analysing the continuing importance of utilitarianism in the world, indicating how it is a force for new thinking on contemporary moral challenges like global poverty, the treatment of animals, climate change, reducing the risk of human extinction, end-of-life decisions for terminally-ill patients, and the shift towards assessing the success of government policies in terms of their impact on happiness.
Categories: Philosophy

Studies in Utilitarianism

Studies in Utilitarianism

Perhaps we can call him a quasi - ideal utilitarian . When we say that a state of mind ... and restricted utilitarianism can be illustrated by considering the remark ' But suppose everyone did the same ' . ( Cf. A. K. Stout's article in ...

Author: Thomas K. Hearn

Publisher: Ardent Media


Category: Utilitarianism

Page: 269

View: 300

Categories: Utilitarianism



This is what Bentham and Mill call "the principle of utility" or "the greatest-happiness principle." Both Bentham and Mill thus endorse "classical" or "hedonistic" forms of utilitarianism.

Author: John Stuart John Stuart Mill


ISBN: 1977762212


Page: 104

View: 998

Why buy our paperbacks? Expedited shipping High Quality Paper Made in USA Standard Font size of 10 for all books 30 Days Money Back Guarantee BEWARE of Low-quality sellers Don't buy cheap paperbacks just to save a few dollars. Most of them use low-quality papers & binding. Their pages fall off easily. Some of them even use very small font size of 6 or less to increase their profit margin. It makes their books completely unreadable. How is this book unique? Unabridged (100% Original content) Font adjustments & biography included Illustrated Utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill's book Utilitarianism is a classic exposition and defence of utilitarianism in ethics. The book first appeared as a series of three articles published in Fraser's Magazine in 1861; the articles were collected and reprinted as a single book in 1863. Mill's aim in the book is to explain what utilitarianism is, to show why it is the best theory of ethics, and to defend it against a wide range of criticisms and misunderstandings. Though heavily criticized both in Mill's lifetime and in the years since, Utilitarianism did a great deal to popularize utilitarian ethics and was "the most influential philosophical articulation of a liberal humanistic morality that was produced in the nineteenth century." Mill took many elements of his version of utilitarianism from Jeremy Bentham, the great nineteenth-century legal reformer, who along with William Paley were the two most influential English utilitarians prior to Mill. Like Bentham, Mill believed that happiness (or pleasure, which both Bentham and Mill equated with happiness) was the only thing humans do and should desire for its own sake. Since happiness is the only intrinsic good, and since more happiness is preferable to less, the goal of the ethical life is to maximize happiness. This is what Bentham and Mill call "the principle of utility" or "the greatest-happiness principle." Both Bentham and Mill thus endorse "classical" or "hedonistic" forms of utilitarianism. More recent utilitarians often deny that happiness is the sole intrinsic good, arguing that a variety of values and consequences should be considered in ethical decision making. Although Mill agreed with Bentham about many of the foundational principles of ethics, he also had some major disagreements. In particular, Mill tried to develop a more refined form of utilitarianism that would harmonize better with ordinary morality and highlight the importance in the ethical life of intellectual pleasures, self-development, high ideals of character, and conventional moral rules. In Chapter 1, titled "General Remarks," Mill notes that there has been little progress in ethics. Since the beginning of philosophy, the same issues have been debated over and over again, and philosophers continue to disagree sharply over the basic starting points of ethics. Mill argues that these philosophical disputes have not seriously damaged popular morality, largely because conventional morality is substantially, though implicitly, utilitarian. He concludes the chapter by noting that he will not attempt to give a strict "proof" of the greatest-happiness principle. Like Bentham, Mill believed that ultimate ends and first principles cannot be demonstrated, since they lie at the foundation of everything else that we know and believe. Nevertheless, he claims, "[c]onsiderations may be presented capable of determining the intellect," which amount to something close to a proof of the principle of utility.

Distributive Justice and Disability

Distributive Justice and Disability

If utilitarianism has intuitive appeal, then facts suggesting that people have rights to resources and also that they ... stipulated IPCs against welfare egalitarianism and on behalf of resource egalitarianism (as illustrated above), ...

Author: Mark S. Stein

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300128253

Category: Philosophy

Page: 316

View: 915

Theories of distributive justice are most severely tested in the area of disability. In this book, Mark Stein argues that utilitarianism performs better than egalitarian theories in this area: whereas egalitarian theories help the disabled either too little or too much, utilitarianism achieves the proper balance by placing resources where they will do the most good. Stein offers what may be the broadest critique of egalitarian theory from a utilitarian perspective. He addresses the work of egalitarian theorists John Rawls, Ronald Dworkin, Amartya Sen, Bruce Ackerman, Martha Nussbaum, Norman Daniels, Philippe Van Parijs, and others. Stein claims that egalitarians are often driven to borrow elements of utilitarianism in order to make their theories at all plausible. The book concludes with an acknowledgment that both utilitarians and egalitarians face problems in the distribution of life-saving medical resources. Stein advocates a version of utilitarianism that would distribute life-saving resources based on life expectancy, not quality of life. Egalitarian theories, he argues, ignore life expectancy and so are again found wanting. Distributive Justice and Disability is a powerful and engaging book that helps to reframe the debate between egalitarian and utilitarian thinkers.
Categories: Philosophy

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Utilitarianism

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Utilitarianism

arguably neo-utilitarian philosopher Henry Sidgwick, the symbolic logician JohnVenn, Joseph Bickersteth Mayor and ... who contributed to the reform of utilitarian thinking in the area of theoretical economics, illustrated famously by ...

Author: James E. Crimmins

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781350021686

Category: Philosophy

Page: 608

View: 168

The idea of utility as a value, goal or principle in political, moral and economic life has a long and rich history. Now available in paperback, The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Utilitarianism captures the complex history and the multi-faceted character of utilitarianism, making it the first work of its kind to bring together all the various aspects of the tradition for comparative study. With more than 200 entries on the authors and texts recognised as having built the tradition of utilitarian thinking, it covers issues and critics that have arisen at every stage. There are entries on Plato, Epicurus, and Confucius and progenitors of the theory like John Gay and David Hume, together with political economists, legal scholars, historians and commentators. Cross-referenced throughout, each entry consists of an explanation of the topic, a bibliography of works and suggestions for further reading. Providing fresh juxtapositions of issues and arguments in utilitarian studies and written by a team of respected scholars, The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Utilitarianism is an authoritative and valuable resource.
Categories: Philosophy

Understanding Utilitarianism

Understanding Utilitarianism

As utilitarians, our goalshould be tomake people happy, not to make happy people. ... Unfortunately, person-affecting utilitarianism faces problemsof its own, as illustrated by a tale made famous by Parfit. (Parfit's original target is ...

Author: Tim Mulgan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317493396

Category: Philosophy

Page: 200

View: 362

Utilitarianism - a philosophy based on the principle of the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people - has been hugely influential over the past two centuries. Beyond ethics or morality, utilitarian assumptions and arguments abound in modern economic and political life, especially in public policy. An understanding of utilitarianism is indeed essential to any understanding of contemporary society. "Understanding Utilitarianism" presents utilitarianism very much as a living tradition. The book begins with a summary of the classical utilitarianism of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Subsequent chapters trace the development of the central themes of utilitarian thought over the twentieth century, covering such questions as: What is happiness? Is happiness the only valuable thing? Is utilitarianism about acts or rules or institutions? Is utilitarianism unjust, or implausibly demanding, or impractical? and Where might utilitarianism go in the future?
Categories: Philosophy

John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill

Utilitarianism illustrated Mill's past; On Liberty illuminated his future. Even if Mill had been inclined to guard and improve Utilitarianism after its publication, events across the Atlantic in any case stole his attention.

Author: Richard Reeves

Publisher: Atlantic Books Ltd

ISBN: 9781782397137

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 300

View: 828

A young activist and highly-educated Cambridge Union debater, Mill would become in time the highest-ranked English thinker of the nineteenth century, the author of the landmark essay On Liberty and one of the most passionate reformers and advocates of his revolutionary, opinionated age. As a journalist he fired off a weekly article on Irish land reform as the people of that nation starved, as an MP he introduced the first vote on women's suffrage, fought to preserve free-speech and opposed slavery, and, in his private life, pursued for two decades a love affair with another man's wife. To understand Mill and his contribution, Richard Reeves explores his life and work in tandem. His book is a riveting and authoritative biography of a man raised to promote happiness, whose life was spent in the pursuit of truth and liberty for all.
Categories: Biography & Autobiography

God the Good and Utilitarianism

God  the Good  and Utilitarianism

Given the utilitarian commitment to temporal impartiality, climate change is the most important moral issue we face (if what ... 25 For instance, the conference session on charity nicely illustrated all three features of utilitarianism.

Author: John Perry

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107729834

Category: Religion

Page: 212

View: 906

Is ethics about happiness? Aristotle thought so and for centuries Christians agreed, until utilitarianism raised worries about where this would lead. In this volume, Peter Singer, leading utilitarian philosopher and controversial defender of infanticide and euthanasia, addresses this question in conversation with Christian ethicists and secular utilitarians. Their engagement reveals surprising points of agreement and difference on questions of moral theory, the history of ethics, and current issues such as climate change, abortion, poverty and animal rights. The volume explores the advantages and pitfalls of basing morality on happiness; if ethics is teleological, is its proper aim the subjective satisfaction of preferences? Or is human flourishing found in objective goods: friendship, intellectual curiosity, meaningful labour? This volume provides a timely review of how utilitarians and Christians conceive of the good, and will be of great interest to those studying religious ethics, philosophy of religion and applied ethics.
Categories: Religion