Roads in the Deserts of Roman Egypt

Roads in the Deserts of Roman Egypt

Characteristically, Via Nova Hadriana paralleled, but only rarely approached, the Red Sea coast as to do so would impede ... From an engineering point, to build a road so close to the Red Sea would entail passing through numerous wadi ...

Author: Maciej Paprocki

Publisher: Oxbow Books

ISBN: 9781789251579

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 288

Egypt under the Romans (30 BCE–3rd century CE) was a period when local deserts experienced an unprecedented flurry of activity. In the Eastern Desert, a marked increase in desert traffic came from imperial prospecting/quarrying activities and caravans transporting wares to and from the Red Sea ports. In the Western Desert, resilient camels slowly became primary beasts of burden in desert travel, enabling caravaneers to lengthen daily marching distances across previously inhospitable dunes. Desert road archaeology has used satellite imaging, landscape studies and network analysis to plot desert trail networks with greater accuracy; however, it is often difficult to date roadside installations and thus assess how these networks evolved in scope and density in reaction to climatic, social and technological change. Roads in the Deserts of Roman Egypt examines evidence for desert roads in Roman Egypt and assesses Roman influence on the road density in two select desert areas: the central and southern section of the Eastern Desert and the central Marmarican Plateau and discusses geographical and social factors influencing road use in the period, demonstrating that Roman overseers of these lands adapted remarkably well to local desert conditions, improving roads and developing the trail network. Crucially, the author reconceptualises desert trails as linear corridor structures that follow expedient routes in the desert landscape, passing through at least two functional nodes attracting human traffic, be those water sources, farmlands, mines/quarries, trade hubs, military installations or actual settlements. The ‘route of least resistance’ across the desert varied from period to period according to the available road infrastructure and beasts of burden employed. Roman administration in Egypt not only increased the density of local desert ‘node’ networks, but also facilitated internodal connections with camel caravans and transformed the Sahara by establishing new, or embellishing existing, nodes, effectively funnelling desert traffic into discernible corridors.Significantly, not all desert areas of Egypt are equally suited for anthropogenic development, but almost all have been optimised in one way or another, with road installations built for added comfort and safety of travellers. Accordingly, the study of how Romans successfully adapted to desert travel is of wider significance to the study of deserts and ongoing expansion due to global warming.
Categories: History

Zeichen aus dem Sand

Zeichen aus dem Sand

Eine Zweitroute der Via Hadriana , die als typischer breiter Weg noch gut erkennbar ist , könnte auf eine dynastische oder sogar prädynastische Vorgängertrasse zurückzuführen sein . Die älteste noch existierende gepflasterte Straße ist ...

Author: Evamaria Engel

Publisher: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag

ISBN: 3447058161

Category: History

Page: 736

View: 111

Anlasslich des 65. Geburtstages von Gunter Dreyer, dem langjahrigen Ersten Direktor des Deutschen Archaologischen Institutes Abteilung Kairo und Leiter der Grabungen in Abydos/Umm el-Qaab und Elephantine, erscheinen Zeichen aus dem Sand - Streifl ichter aus Agyptens Geschichte zu Ehren von Gunter Dreyer. In 43 Beitragen von 48 international fuhrenden Autoren werden agyptologische Fragestellungen aus der Zeitspanne zwischen dem 4. Jahrtausend v. Chr. bis zum 1. Jahrtausend n. Chr. erortert. Die dabei auftretende Themenvielfalt reicht von archaologischen und kunstgeschichtlichen Studien uber anthropologische und zooarchaologische Untersuchungen bis zu philologischen und kulturwissenschaftlichen Analysen. Dem Hauptarbeitsgebiet des Jubilars entsprechend liegt ein Schwerpunkt in der pra- und fruhdynastischen Epoche. Somit gibt der Band nicht nur ein breites Spektrum der aktuellen agyptologischen Forschung wieder, sondern fuhrt in exemplarischer Weise neueste Tendenzen der agyptischen Vor- und Fruhgeschichtsforschung vor Augen.
Categories: History

The Red Land

The Red Land

By opting for this route , the land across which the Via Nova Hadriana ran was , in general , flatter , making road construction , maintenance , and travel along it easier . Any wells dug on or near the road segments this far from the ...

Author: Steven E. Sidebotham

Publisher: American Univ in Cairo Press

ISBN: 9774160940

Category: Travel

Page: 504

View: 537

For thousands of years Egypt has crowded the Nile Valley and Delta. The Eastern Desert, however, has also played a crucial--though until now little understood--role in Egyptian history. Ancient inhabitants of the Nile Valley feared the desert, which they referred to as the Red Land, and were reluctant to venture there, yet they exploited the extensive mineral wealth of this region. They also profited from the valuable wares conveyed across the desert between the Nile and the Red Sea ports, which originated from Arabia, Africa, India, and elsewhere in the east. Based on twenty years of archaeological fieldwork conducted in the Eastern Desert, The Red Land reveals the cultural and historical richness of this little known and seldom visited area of Egypt. A range of important archaeological sites dating from Prehistoric to Byzantine times is explored here in text and illustrations. Among these ancient treasures are petroglyphs, cemeteries, fortified wells, gold and emerald mines, hard stone quarries, roads, forts, ports, and temples. With 250 photographs and fascinating artistic reconstructions based on the evidence on the ground, along with the latest research and accounts from ancient sources and modern travelers, the authors lead the reader into the remotest corners of the hauntingly beautiful Eastern Desert to discover the full story of the area's human history.
Categories: Travel

Berenike 1999 2000

Berenike 1999 2000

17.2 other Survey Work 17.2.1 The vIA hAdrIAnA The project spent two weeks continuing the survey of the Via Hadriana, which began in the summer of 1996. During this period an additional 217 km of the route was traced.

Author: Steven E. Sidebotham

Publisher: ISD LLC

ISBN: 9781938770425

Category: History

Page: 424

View: 192

Excavations at Berenike, a Greco-Roman harbor on the Egyptian Red Sea coast, have provided extensive evidence for trade with India, South-Arabia and sub-Saharan Africa. The results of the 1999 and 2000 excavations by the joint mission of the University of Delaware, Leiden University, and UCLA, have been published in a comprehensive report, with specialists' analyses of different object groups and an overview of evidence for the trade route from the Indian perspective. The book is lavishly illustrated with photographs, drawings, plans, and a large foldout map of Berenike and Sikait.
Categories: History

Land Transport in Roman Egypt

Land Transport in Roman Egypt

... attached to the First Cohort of Lusitanians based at Contrapollonopolis Maior, dedicated an inscription at El-Kanais during the reign of Commodus.105 The final route linking the Nile Valley to the Red Sea coast was the Via Hadriana, ...

Author: Colin Adams

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191525377

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 147

The papyri of Egypt offer a rich and complex picture of this important Roman province and provide an unparalleled insight into how a Roman province actually worked. They also afford a valuable window into ancient economic behaviour and everyday life. This study is the first systematic treatment of the role of land transport within the economic life of Roman Egypt, an everyday economic activity at the centre of the economy not only of Egypt but of the Roman world. Colin Adams studies the economics of animal ownership, the role of transport in the commercial and agricultural economies of Egypt, and how the Roman state used provincial resources to meet its own transport demands. He reveals a complex relationship between private individual and state in their use of transport resources, a dynamic and rational economy, and the economic and administrative behaviour imposed when an imperial power made demands upon a province.
Categories: History

Rome s Eastern Trade

Rome s Eastern Trade

272 For the survey of the Via Hadriana see S.E.Sidebotham and R.E.Zitterkopf 'Surveyof the ViaHadriana by the University of Delaware: the 1996 Season' BIFAO 97 (1997), 221–37; S.E.Sidebotham and R.E.Zitterkopf 'Survey ofthe Via ...

Author: Gary K Young

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134547920

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 198

The spectacular ruins of such places as Palmyra and Petra bear witness to the wealth and power which could be derived from the silks, spices and incense of the east. Such goods were highly prized in the Roman Empire, and merchants were ready to face the perils of deserts, oceans, warfare and piracy to meet the demand for their wares. But exactly how did the trade in luxury goods operate, and to whose benefit? Gary K. Young's study offers unprecedented coverage of the major trading regions of Egypt, Arabia, Palmyra, and Syria, with detailed analysis of the routes used and of the roles of all the participants. He looks closely at the influence of the commerce in eastern goods both on the policy of the Roman imperial government, and upon local communities in the East itself. His findings contradict the standard view that the imperial government had a strong political interest in the eastern trade; rather its primary concern was the tax income the trade brought in. He also demonstrates the need for greater recognition of the efforts made by local authorities to exploit the trade to their own advantage. Incorporating the considerable archaeological research that has been undertaken in recent years, this comprehensive survey provides fresh insight into an important aspect of the eastern Roman Empire.
Categories: History

Byzantine Trade 4th 12th Centuries

Byzantine Trade  4th 12th Centuries

S.E. Sidebotham and R.E. Zitterkopf, 'Survey of the Via Hadriana by the University of Delaware: the 1996 season', BIFAO 97 (1997), 221–37; S.E. Sidebotham and R.E. Zitterkopf, Survey of the Via Hadriana: the 1997 Season', ...

Author: Marlia Mundell Mango

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351953771

Category: Religion

Page: 512

View: 894

The 28 papers examine questions relating to the extent and nature of Byzantine trade from Late Antiquity into the Middle Ages. The Byzantine state was the only political entity of the Mediterranean to survive Antiquity and thus offers a theoretical standard against which to measure diachronic and regional changes in trading practices within the area and beyond. To complement previous extensive work on late antique long-distance trade within the Mediterranean (based on the grain supply, amphorae and fine ware circulation), the papers concentrate on local and international trade. The emphasis is on recently uncovered or studied archaeological evidence relating to key topics. These include local retail organisation within the city, some regional markets within the empire, the production and/or circulation patterns of particular goods (metalware, ivory and bone, glass, pottery), and objects of international trade, both exports such as wine and glass, imports such as materia medica, and the lack of importation of, for example, Sasanian pottery. In particular, new work relating to specific regions of Byzantium's international trade is highlighted: in Britain, the Levant, the Red Sea, the Black Sea and China. Papers of the 38th Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, held in 2004 at Oxford under the auspices of the Committee for Byzantine Studies.
Categories: Religion

Rome in Egypt s Eastern Desert

Rome in Egypt s Eastern Desert

The via Hadriana must have served above all to make it easier to keep the coast under surveillance in order to prevent unwanted or clandestine landings, and to assure the service and supply of the coastal praesidia.

Author: Hélène Cuvigny

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9781479810642

Category: History

Page: 346

View: 423

A detailed archaeological study of life in Egypt's Eastern desert during the Roman period by a leading scholar Rome in Egypt’s Eastern Desert is a two-volume set collecting Hélène Cuvigny’s most important articles on Egypt’s Eastern Desert during the Roman period. The excavations she directed uncovered a wealth of material, including tens of thousands of texts written on pottery fragments (ostraca). Some are administrative texts, but many more are correspondence, both official and private, written by and to the people (mostly but not all men) who lived and worked in these remote and harsh environments, supported by an elaborate network of defense, administration, and supply that tied the entire region together. The contents of Rome in Egypt’s Eastern Desert have all been published earlier in peer-reviewed venues, but most appear here for the first time in English. All of the contributions have been checked or translated by the editor and brought up to date with respect to bibliography, and some have been significantly rewritten by the author, in order to take account of the enormous amount of new material discovered since the original publications. A full index makes this body of work far more accessible than it was before. This book assembles into one collection thirty years of detailed study of this material, conjuring in vivid detail the lived experience of those who inhabited these forts—often through their own expressive language—and the realia of desert geography, military life, sex, religion, quarry operations, and imperial administration in the Roman world.
Categories: History

Pious Pilgrims Discerning Travellers Curious Tourists Changing Patterns of Travel to the Middle East from Medieval to Modern Times

Pious Pilgrims  Discerning Travellers  Curious Tourists  Changing Patterns of Travel to the Middle East from Medieval to Modern Times

Survey of the Via Hadriana by the University of Delaware: the 1996 season. Le Bulletin de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale 97: 221–237. Sidebotham S.E. & Zitterkopf R.E. 1998. Survey of the Via Hadriana: the 1997 season.

Author: Paul Starkey

Publisher: Archaeopress Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 9781789697537

Category: Travel

Page: 422

View: 747

This volume comprises a varied collection of seventeen papers presented at the biennial conference of the Association for the Study of Travel in Egypt and the Near East (ASTENE) held in York in July 2019, which together will provide the reader with a fascinating introduction to travel in and to the Middle East over more than a thousand years.
Categories: Travel

Trade Commerce and the State in the Roman World

Trade  Commerce  and the State in the Roman World

'Survey of the Via Hadriana by the University of Delaware: The 1996 Season', BIFAO 97: 221–37. Sidebotham, S. E., and Zitterkopf, R. E. (1998). 'Survey of the Via Hadriana: The 1997 Season', BIFAO 98: 353–65.

Author: Andrew Wilson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198790662

Category: Architecture

Page: 679

View: 514

In this volume, papers by leading Roman historians and archaeologists discuss trade within the Roman Empire and beyond its frontiers between c.100 BC and AD 350, and the role of the state in shaping the institutional framework for trade. Documentary, historical and archaeological evidence forms the basis of a novel interdisciplinary approach
Categories: Architecture