Water Soluble Polymers for Petroleum Recovery

Water Soluble Polymers for Petroleum Recovery

We both found ourselves working on water-soluble polymers for oil recovery in the early 1980' s.

Author: G.A. Stahl

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306429152

Category: Science

Page: 370

View: 925

We both found ourselves working on water-soluble polymers for oil recovery in the early 1980' s. Our previ ous backgrounds i nvo 1 ved the synthesi sand characteri zati on of hydrocarbon polymers for everythi ng from elastomers to plastics. As such, we were largely unprepared for the special difficulties associated with water soluble polymers in genera 1, and thei ruse in enhanced oi 1 recovery (EOR) , in parti cul ar. Oil patch applications have a jargon and technical heritage quite apart from that usually experienced by traditional polymer scientists. At that time, no books were available to help us "get up to speed" in the polymers for oil recovery field. Since then, there have been a number of symposia on this topic, but still few books, especially from the polymer (rather than the field-applications) perspective. Synthetic water soluble/swellable polymers have commercial importance in such application as water treatment, cosmetics, and foods. Yet, these polymers have not received the scientific/technological attention they deserve. The application of water soluble polymers to oil recovery has, in fact, highlighted the need for new water based materials, and a fundamental understanding of their structure and use. Interest has been spurred not only for the potenti a 1 economi c credi ts from enhanced oi 1 recovery and an augmented polymers business, but also by the challenge of designing water soluble polymers for harsh environments.
Categories: Science

Water Soluble Polymers for Petroleum Recovery

Water Soluble Polymers for Petroleum Recovery

PREFACE We both found ourselves working on water-soluble polymers for oil recovery in the early 1980's. Our previous backgrounds involved the synthesis and characterization of hydrocarbon polymers for everything from elastomers to ...

Author: G.A. Stahl

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781475719857

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 355

View: 880

We both found ourselves working on water-soluble polymers for oil recovery in the early 1980' s. Our previ ous backgrounds i nvo 1 ved the synthesi sand characteri zati on of hydrocarbon polymers for everythi ng from elastomers to plastics. As such, we were largely unprepared for the special difficulties associated with water soluble polymers in genera 1, and thei ruse in enhanced oi 1 recovery (EOR) , in parti cul ar. Oil patch applications have a jargon and technical heritage quite apart from that usually experienced by traditional polymer scientists. At that time, no books were available to help us "get up to speed" in the polymers for oil recovery field. Since then, there have been a number of symposia on this topic, but still few books, especially from the polymer (rather than the field-applications) perspective. Synthetic water soluble/swellable polymers have commercial importance in such application as water treatment, cosmetics, and foods. Yet, these polymers have not received the scientific/technological attention they deserve. The application of water soluble polymers to oil recovery has, in fact, highlighted the need for new water based materials, and a fundamental understanding of their structure and use. Interest has been spurred not only for the potenti a 1 economi c credi ts from enhanced oi 1 recovery and an augmented polymers business, but also by the challenge of designing water soluble polymers for harsh environments.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Polymer Flooding

Polymer Flooding

This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks.

Author: W. Littmann

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080868820

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 223

View: 366

This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks. Although this method is becoming increasingly important, there is very little literature available for the engineer wishing to embark on such a project. In the past, polymer flooding was mainly the subject of research. The results of this research are spread over a vast number of single publications, making it difficult for someone who has not kept up-to-date with developments during the last 10 to 15 years to judge the suitability of polymer flooding to a particular field case. This book tries to fill that gap. The basic mechanisms of the process are described and criteria given where it may be employed. Basic elements of the chemistry of EOR-polymers are provided. The fundamentals of polymer physics, such as rheology, flow in porous media and adsorption, are derived. Practical hints on mixing and testing of polymers in the laboratory are given, as well as instructions for their application in the oil field. Polymer flooding is illustrated by some case histories and the economics of the methods are examined. For the essential subjects, example calculations are added. An indispensable book for reservoir engineers, production engineers and laboratory technicians within the petroleum industry.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Water Soluble Polymers

Water Soluble Polymers

CONCLUSIONS The use of water-soluble polymers of the polyacrylamide and xanthan gum families as mobility control agents ... of adequate quality, much effort must then be expended to evaluate the economics of each oil-recovery prospect, ...

Author: N. Bikales

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461345831

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 424

View: 530

Water-soluble polymers have been attracting increasing atten tion because of their utility in industrial applications of great current concern. Perhaps preeminent among these is their ability to flocculate suspended solids, e.g., wastes in municipal sew age-treatment plants or pulp in papermaking. other important appli cations are to aid in so-called secondary recovery of petroleum, to reduce turbulent friction of water, and as components of water-based finishes developed in response to environmental con straints. Some water-soluble polymers have shown interesting bio logic activity, which is being investigated further. This book is based on papers presented at a symposium held by the American Chemical Society, Division of Organic Coatings and Plastics Chemistry, in New York City on 30-31 August 1972. The large attendance and the favorable response of the audience con firmed not only our view of the importance of the field but also the need to bring these topics together. The chapters in this book are generally enlarged and more detailed, with more complete bibliographies, than the papers presented at the Symposium. They include not only the important applications described above, but also descriptions of new syntheses and characterization methods.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Polymer Improved Oil Recovery

Polymer Improved Oil Recovery

(1988) Water Soluble Polymers for Petroleum Recovery. Plenum Publishing Corp., New York. Stahl, G. A., Moradi-Araghi, A. and Doe, P. H. (1988) High temperature and hardness stable copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone and acrylamide.

Author: K.S. Sorbie

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401130448

Category: Science

Page: 359

View: 941

The importance of oil in the world economy cannot be overstated, and methods for recovering oil will be the subject of much scientific and engineering research for many years to come. Even after the application of primary depletion and secondary recovery processes (usually waterflooding), much oil usually remains in a reservoir, and indeed in some heterogeneous reservoir systems as much as 70% of the original oil may remain. Thus, there is an enormous incentive for the development of improved or enhanced methods of oil recovery, aimed at recovering some portion of this remainil)g oil. The techniques used range from 'improved' secondary flooding methods (including polymer and certain gas injection processes) through to 'enhanced' or 'tertiary' methods such as chemical (surfactant, caustic, foam), gas miscible (carbon dioxide, gas reinjection) and thermal (steam soak and drive, in-situ combustion). The distinction between the classification ofthe methods usually refers to the target oil that the process seeks to recover. That is, in 'improved' recovery we are usually aiming to increase the oil sweep efficiency, whereas in 'tertiary' recovery we aim to mobilise and recover residual or capillary trapped oil. There are a few books and collections of articles which give general overviews of improved and enhanced oil recovery methods. However, for each recovery method, there is such a wide range of interconnected issues concerning the chemistry, physics and fluid mechanics of flow in porous media, that rarely are these adequately reviewed.
Categories: Science

Modern Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery

Modern Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery

Paper SPE/DOE 27780 presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 17–20 April. MacWilliams, D.C., Rogers, J.H., West, T.J., 1973. Water soluble polymers in petroleum recovery. In: Bikales, N.M. (Ed.), Water Soluble ...

Author: James Sheng

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 0080961630

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 648

View: 839

Crude oil development and production in U.S. oil reservoirs can include up to three distinct phases: primary, secondary, and tertiary (or enhanced) recovery. During primary recovery, the natural pressure of the reservoir or gravity drive oil into the wellbore, combined with artificial lift techniques (such as pumps) which bring the oil to the surface. But only about 10 percent of a reservoir's original oil in place is typically produced during primary recovery. Secondary recovery techniques to the field's productive life generally by injecting water or gas to displace oil and drive it to a production wellbore, resulting in the recovery of 20 to 40 percent of the original oil in place. In the past two decades, major oil companies and research organizations have conducted extensive theoretical and laboratory EOR (enhanced oil recovery) researches, to include validating pilot and field trials relevant to much needed domestic commercial application, while western countries had terminated such endeavours almost completely due to low oil prices. In recent years, oil demand has soared and now these operations have become more desirable. This book is about the recent developments in the area as well as the technology for enhancing oil recovery. The book provides important case studies related to over one hundred EOR pilot and field applications in a variety of oil fields. These case studies focus on practical problems, underlying theoretical and modelling methods, operational parameters (e.g., injected chemical concentration, slug sizes, flooding schemes and well spacing), solutions and sensitivity studies, and performance optimization strategies. The book strikes an ideal balance between theory and practice, and would be invaluable to academicians and oil company practitioners alike. Updated chemical EOR fundamentals providing clear picture of fundamental concepts Practical cases with problems and solutions providing practical analogues and experiences Actual data regarding ranges of operation parameters providing initial design parameters Step-by-step calculation examples providing practical engineers with convenient procedures
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Improved Oil Recovery by Surfactant and Polymer Flooding

Improved Oil Recovery by Surfactant and Polymer Flooding

6, 633—645 (1974). MacWilliams, D. C., Rogers, J. H., and West, T. J., "WaterSoluble Polymers in Petroleum Recovery," Polymer Science and Technology, Vol. 2 (WaterSoluble Polymers), edited by N. M. Bikales, Plenum Press, New York, ...

Author: D.O. Shah

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780323141574

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 588

View: 629

Improved Oil Recovery by Surfactant and Polymer Flooding contains papers presented at the 1976 AIChE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery by Surfactant and Polymer Flooding held in Kansas City. Organized into 18 chapters, the book includes papers that introduce petroleum reservoirs and discuss interfacial tension; molecular forces; molecular aspects of ultralow interfacial tension; the structure, formation, and phase inversion of microemulsions; and thermodynamics of micellization and related phenomena. Papers on adsorption phenomena at solid/liquid interfaces and reservoir rocks, as well as on flow through porous media studies on polymer solutions, microemulsions, and soluble oils are also provided. Significant topics on molecular, microscopic, and macroscopic aspects of oil displacement in porous media by surfactant and polymer solutions and related phenomena are also discussed. The literature cited in this book forms a comprehensive list of references in relation to improved oil recovery by surfactant and polymer flooding. This book will be useful to experts and non-experts in this field of research.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Concise Polymeric Materials Encyclopedia

Concise Polymeric Materials Encyclopedia

Lockhart , T. P .; Albonico , P. SPE / DOE Paper 24194 ; SPE / DOE 8th Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery ; Tulsa , OK ... McCormick , C. L .; Johnson , C. B. In Water - Soluble Polymers for Petroleum Recovery ; Stahl , G. A .; Schulz ...

Author: Joseph C. Salamone

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 084932226X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1782

View: 230

Concise Polymeric Materials Encyclopedia culls the most used, widely applicable articles from the Polymeric Materials Encyclopedia - more than 1,100 - and presents them to you in a condensed, well-ordered format. Featuring contributions from more than 1,800 scientists from all over the world, the book discusses a vast array of subjects related to the: synthesis, properties, and applications of polymeric materials development of modern catalysts in preparing new or modified polymers modification of existing polymers by chemical and physical processes biologically oriented polymers This comprehensive, easy-to-use resource on modern polymeric materials serves as an invaluable addition to reference collections in the polymer field.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Enhanced Oil Recovery II

Enhanced Oil Recovery  II

Mobilization and banking of residual oil in high salinity reservoir systems with the use of aqueous surfactant ... SPE/ DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symp., Tulsa, Okla., April 4-7, pp. ... Water soluble polymers in petroleum recovery.

Author: E.C. Donaldson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080868738

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 603

View: 983

Written by foremost experts in the field, and formulated with attention to classroom use for advanced studies in reservoir characterization and processes, this book reviews and summarises state-of-the-art progress in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). All of the available techniques: alkaline flooding; surfactant flooding; carbon dioxide flooding; steam flooding; in-situ combustion; gas injection; miscible flooding; microbial recovery; and polymer flooding are discussed and compared. Together with Volume I, it presents a complete text on enhanced recovery technology and, hence, is an almost indispensible reference text. This second volume compliments the first by presenting as complete an analysis as possible of current oilfield theory and technology, for accomplishment of maximum production of oil. Many different processes have been developed and field tested for enhancement of oil recovery. The emerging philosophy is that no single process is applicable to all petroleum reservoirs. Each must be treated as unique, and carefully evaluated for characteristics that are amenable to one or two of the proven technologies of EOR. This book will aid the engineer in field evaluation and selection of the best EOR technology for a given oilfield. Even the emerging technology of microbial applications to enhance oil recovery are reviewed and explained in terms that are easily understood by field engineers. The book is presented in a manner suitable for graduate studies. The only addition required of teachers is to supply example problems for class work. An appendix includes a reservoir mathematic model and program for general application that can also be used for teaching.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Chemistry and Technology of Water Soluble Polymers

Chemistry and Technology of Water Soluble Polymers

M.D. Holmyer and C.J. Githens, "Field performance of a new high viscosity water base fracturing fluid, ... M.T.Szabo, 'An evaluation of water soluble polymers for secondary oil recovery - Part l', J. petroleum Tech., 1979,553 (March).

Author: C.A. Finch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781475796612

Category: Science

Page: 358

View: 730

To the biochemist, water is, of course, the only solvent worthy of consideration, because natural macromolecules exhibit their remarkable conformational properties only in aqueous media. Probably because of these remarkable properties, biochemists do not tend to regard proteins, nucleotides and polysaccharides as polymers in the way that real polymer scientists regard methyl methacrylate and polyethylene. The laws of polymer statistics hardly apply to native biopolymers. Between these two powerful camps, lies the No-man's land of water soluble synthetic polymers: here, we must also include natural polymers which have been chemically modified. The scientific literature of these compounds is characterized by a large number of patents, which is usually a sign of little basic understanding, of 'know-how' rather than of 'know-why'. Many of the physical properties of such aqueous solutions are intriguing: the polymer may be completely miscible with water, and yet water is a 'poor' solvent, in terms of polymer parlance. ~kiny of the polymers form thermorever sible gels on heating or cooling. The phenomena of exothermic mixing and salting-in are common features of such systems: neither can be fully explained by the available theories. Finally, the eccentric behaviour of polyelectrolytes is well documented. Despite the lack of a sound physico-chemical foundation there is a general awareness of the importance of water soluble vinyl, acrylic, polyether, starch and cellulose derivatives, as witnessed again by ~he vast patent literature.
Categories: Science