Wine Microbiology and Biotechnology

Wine Microbiology and Biotechnology

The book emphasizes the diversity of microorganisms associated with the winemaking process, and broadens the discussion of winemaking to include more modern concepts of biotechnology and molecular biology.

Author: Graham H. Fleet

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0415278503

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 510

View: 258

Wine Microbiology and Biotechnology presents developments in fermentation technology, enzyme technology, and technologies for the genetic engineering of microorganisms in a single volume. The book emphasizes the diversity of microorganisms associated with the winemaking process, and broadens the discussion of winemaking to include more modern concepts of biotechnology and molecular biology. In each chapter, recognized authorities in their field link the scientific fundamentals of microbiology, biochemistry, and biotechnology to the practical aspects of wine production and quality. They also provide relevant historical background and offer directions for future research.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Molecular Wine Microbiology

Molecular Wine Microbiology

While other books offer insights into the technological aspects of enology, this book is written by expert microbiologists, who explore the positive and negative impacts of gene function in the production of wine, from a microbiological ...

Author: Alfonso V. Carrascosa Santiago

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080962580

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 372

View: 691

Molecular Wine Microbiology features rigorous scientific content written at a level comprehensible for wine professionals as well as advanced students. It includes information on production and spoilage issues, the microbial groups relevant for wine production and microbial wine safety. Microbiology has long been recognized as a key tool in studying wine production, however only recently have wine microbiology studies been addressed at a molecular level, increasing the understanding of how microbiology impacts not only the flavor quality of the wine, but also its safety. Understanding, at a molecular level, how a starter culture can impact ethanol, glycerol, volatile phenols, mannoproteins, biogenic amines or ochratoxin A of a wine are just some of the core points that must be considered in order to achieve maximium consumer acceptability while addressing safety concerns during processing and storage. While other books offer insights into the technological aspects of enology, this book is written by expert microbiologists, who explore the positive and negative impacts of gene function in the production of wine, from a microbiological point of view. Winner of the 2012 Jury Award in Enology from the International Organisation of Vine and Wine Presents the most current methods of studying the microbiology of wine Includes latest identification and typing methods, reducing identification time from days and weeks to minutes and hours Provides important knowledge about the impact of microbiological factors at the molecular level for reduction of wine spoilage and increased wine quality and safety
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Wine Microbiology

Wine Microbiology

Author: Kenneth C. Fugelsang

Publisher: Рипол Классик

ISBN: 9785881474683

Category: History

Page:

View: 926

Categories: History

Wine Microbiology

Wine Microbiology

This volume applies an inductive experimental approach to recognize, control and resolve the variables that effect the wine-making process and the quality of the final product - focusing on the grape variety-yeast interaction controversy.

Author: Claudio Delfini

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0824705904

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 496

View: 956

This volume applies an inductive experimental approach to recognize, control and resolve the variables that effect the wine-making process and the quality of the final product - focusing on the grape variety-yeast interaction controversy. It contains over 300 drawings, photographs and photomicrographs that illustrate the diagnostic morphology of wine yeast and bacteria used to track wine spoilage and related problems.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Handbook of Enology Volume 1

Handbook of Enology  Volume 1

The "Microbiology" volume of the new revised and updated Handbook of Enology focuses on the vinification process. It describes how yeasts work and how they can be influenced to achieve better results.

Author: Pascal Ribéreau-Gayon

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470010358

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 862

The "Microbiology" volume of the new revised and updated Handbook of Enology focuses on the vinification process. It describes how yeasts work and how they can be influenced to achieve better results. It continues to look at the metabolism of lactic acid bacterias and of acetic acid bacterias, and again, how can they be treated to avoid disasters in the winemaking process and how to achieve optimal results. The last chapters in the book deal with the use of sulfur-dioxide, the grape and its maturation process, harvest and pre-fermentation treatment, and the basis of red, white and speciality wine making. The result is the ultimate text and reference on the science and technology of the vinification process: understanding and dealing with yeasts and bacterias involved in the transformation from grape to wine. A must for all serious students and practitioners involved in winemaking.
Categories: Science

Handbook of Enology The Microbiology of Wine and Vinifications

Handbook of Enology  The Microbiology of Wine and Vinifications

This text will be invaluable to winemakers, students of enology or vinification and chemists interested in winemaking.

Author: Pascal Ribéreau-Gayon

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated

ISBN: CORNELL:31924054664663

Category: Gardening

Page: 466

View: 207

For centuries the transformation of grapes into wine has been the focus of much scientific research but it was not until the nineteenth century that the role of yeasts in alcoholic fermentation was discovered. Since this discovery the findings of chemists, biochemists and microbiologists have led to controlled conditions in winemaking, producing more varied and higher quality wines. Handbook of Enology Volume 1: The Microbiology of Wine and Vinifications uniquely combines scientific knowledge with the description of day-to-day work in the first stages of winemaking, from grape-picking to the end of the fermentation processes. It discusses the scientific basics and technological problems of wine-making and the resulting consequences for the practitioner, providing an authoritative and complete reference manual for both the winemaker and the student. This text will be invaluable to winemakers, students of enology or vinification and chemists interested in winemaking.
Categories: Gardening

Understanding Wine Microbiota Challenges and Opportunities

Understanding Wine Microbiota  Challenges and Opportunities

Understanding how the microbial community works is expected to provide a sound basis before using fermentation helpers and starters, taking into account the indigenous microbiota.

Author: Aline Lonvaud

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889459599

Category:

Page:

View: 786

Wine yeast and bacteria have been extensively characterized in terms of physiological and metabolic traits largely in pure culture analyses. Winemaking practices derived from this basic knowledge have undoubtedly improved wine quality. Phylogenetic studies and genome comparisons in extensive collections have revealed the processes of evolution and adaptation of the two main microbial species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni, present in wine. However, grapes and grape juice contain a variety of microorganisms and these principal agents of fermentation are in fact part of a complex microbial community that evolves dynamically in a special niche. Thanks to the new methods of analysis, the complexity of the microbiota can be measured in any sample of must or wine. In addition, there is greater appreciation of diversity within the main species present in wine. Intraspecific diversity has been evaluated in yeast and bacteria species and strains can be typed even in the mixture of selected or indigenous strains. Descriptions of microbial profiles in all the regions of the world suggest that the microbiota is a significant element of terroir or regional signature. It is no longer enough to simply describe what is present. It is important to consider evolution, physiology and metabolism taking into account microbial interactions within the community. Research in wine microbiology has also expanded our understanding of the participation and role of non-Saccharomyces organisms in winemaking, and refined knowledge on microbial spoilage. However, it is challenging to go from the simple description of these phenomena to their interpretation. The greatest difficulty lies in analyzing the functioning of the extraordinary complex system of yeast and bacteria present during different stages of the fermentation. Interactions in the very particular environment of fermenting grape induce alternations of relative populations’ dominances and declines with subsequent impacts on wine composition. Some mechanisms have been identified or suggested, but much remains to be done. The recent advent of inoculation with non-Saccharomyces in oenological practice, sometimes leading to inconstant results, reflects the profound gaps that exist in knowledge of the complexity of fermentation and wine microbial ecosystems. Understanding how the microbial community works is expected to provide a sound basis before using fermentation helpers and starters, taking into account the indigenous microbiota. It will also aid in monitoring and understanding native or uninoculated fermentations that rely on the complex interactions of grape, winery and fermentation biota for their aroma and flavor profile. The aim of this Research Topic was to bring together current knowledge on several key aspects of wine microorganism biology: i) Evolution / co-evolution of yeasts and bacteria in their process of domestication and adaptation to the oenological niche. ii) Mechanisms of interactions between species and strains, both on grapes and in grape must. iii) Metabolism and physiology of yeast and bacteria in interactions with each other and with the environment, considering to what extent expected objectives (typicity, lower alcohol, etc.,) can be reached by using selected strains. iv) Development of novel technologies or approaches for the assessment of changes in a dynamic microbial community and the linking of such changes to wine flavor and aroma properties. v) Diversity, ecology, physiology and metabolism of B. bruxellensis. Damage from this spoilage agent is not effectively prevented because we do not fully understand the biology of this species, particularly in interaction with other yeast and bacteria. Each chapter presents advances in these areas of study. Research in wine microbiology, particularly in the wine microbiome and its impacts on wine composition is enhancing our understanding of the complexities and dynamics of microbial food and beverage ecosystems.
Categories:

Microbiology and Technology of Fermented Foods

Microbiology and Technology of Fermented Foods

I think about all those people who tended andpicked the grapes, and ifit is an old
wine, how many of them must be dead by ... In fact, although wine manufacture
does indeed rely heavily on modern microbiology and biochemistry, traditional ...

Author: Robert W. Hutkins

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470276242

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 473

View: 915

While many food science programs offer courses in the microbiology and processing of fermented foods, no recently published texts exist that fully address the subject. Food fermentation professionals and researchers also have lacked a single book that covers the latest advances in biotechnology, bioprocessing, and microbial genetics, physiology, and taxonomy. In Microbiology and Technology of Fermented Foods, Robert Hutkins has written the first text on food fermentation microbiology in a generation. This authoritative volume also serves as a comprehensive and contemporary reference book. A brief history and evolution of microbiology and fermented foods, an overview of microorganisms involved in food fermentations, and their physiological and metabolic properties provide a foundation for the reader. How microorganisms are used to produce fermented foods and the development of a modern starter culture industry are also described. Successive chapters are devoted to the major fermented foods produced around the world with coverage including microbiological and technological features for manufacture of these foods: Cultured Dairy Products Cheese Meat Fermentation Fermented Vegetables Bread Fermentation Beer Fermentation Wine Fermentation Vinegar Fermentation Fermentation of Foods in the Orient Examples of industrial processes, key historical events, new discoveries in microbiology, anecdotal materials, case studies, and other key information are highlighted throughout the book. Comprehensively written in a style that encourages critical thinking, Microbiology and Technology of Fermented Foods will appeal to anyone dealing in food fermentation – students, professors, researchers, and industry professionals.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Industrial Applications of Microbiology

Industrial Applications of Microbiology

MICROORGANISMS Wine is made by normal alcohalic fermentation of the juice
of sound , riped grapes , modified by usual cellar treatment . Relatively , small but
significant amount of wine is made in the world from raisins , apples , black ...

Author: Neelima Rajvaidya

Publisher: APH Publishing

ISBN: 8131300013

Category: Industrial microbiology

Page: 262

View: 224

Categories: Industrial microbiology

Production Wine Analysis

Production Wine Analysis

This text is designed to acquaint the reader with the commonly used procedures of juice and wine analysis as they are generally practiced in the industry, and as they are taught in the Department of Enology at California State University, ...

Author: Bruce W. Zoecklein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461581468

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 476

View: 515

This text is designed to acquaint the reader with the commonly used procedures of juice and wine analysis as they are generally practiced in the industry, and as they are taught in the Department of Enology at California State University, Fresno. It is assumed that the reader has a basic preparation in the fields of chemistry and microbiology. In developing material for this text, the authors have emphasized analyses as they would be carried out in a production laboratory. Realizing that different laboratories have different analytical capabilities, personnel as well as equip ment, we have in many instances provided several different approaches to the same analysis. Throughout this book we have attempted to give special attention to practical considerations and the importance of these analyses in the total spectrum of winery operations. We hope the book's format will satisfy the inter ests oflaboratory personnel as well as winemakers. The process of making wine involves a series of concerns for the winemaker and staff of a winery. The first concerns are viticultural. Upon arrival of the fruit, its quality is assessed, grapes are processed and fermentation is begun. Almost immediately, and in many instances simultaneously, chemical and microbiological stability of the young and/or aging wine become important. Finally, problems do occur on occasion, and a number of what may be consid ered remedial techniques can be employed to produce an acceptable product.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Food Microbiology

Food Microbiology

41. Divies , C. 1993. Bioreactor technology and wine fermentation , p . 449-475 .
In G. H. Fleet ( ed . ) , Wine Microbiology and Biotechnology . Harwood Academic
Publishers , Chur , Switzerland . 42. Doneche , B. 1993. Botrytized wines , p .

Author: Michael P. Doyle

Publisher: Amer Society for Microbiology

ISBN: WISC:89081770703

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 872

View: 162

∗ the book introduces a valuable computer modelling tool, available on the Internet, that is especially useful as a research of teaching tool for pathogen identification.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Issues in Life Sciences Muscle Membrane and General Microbiology 2011 Edition

Issues in Life Sciences  Muscle  Membrane  and General Microbiology  2011 Edition

Rodriguez and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Applied
Microbiology (Genomic characterization and selection of wine yeast to conduct
industrial fermentations of a white wine produced in a SW Spain winery. Journal
of ...

Author:

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 9781464964565

Category: Science

Page: 1407

View: 909

Issues in Life Sciences: Muscle, Membrane, and General Microbiology: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Life Sciences—Muscle, Membrane, and General Microbiology. The editors have built Issues in Life Sciences: Muscle, Membrane, and General Microbiology: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Life Sciences—Muscle, Membrane, and General Microbiology in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Life Sciences: Muscle, Membrane, and General Microbiology: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Categories: Science

Brewing Microbiology

Brewing Microbiology

both brewing (e.g. Rainbow, 1981) and wine microbiology (e.g. Sponholz, 1993)
treats these non- or weakly fermenting yeasts as aerobic organisms, but this is
not entirely true. In pure culture in wort, spoilage Pichia spp. are capable of
growth ...

Author: Fergus Priest

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306472880

Category: Science

Page: 399

View: 932

Much has happened in the brewing industry since the last edition of this book was published in 1996. In particular, there has been substantial con solidation of larger brewing companies as major multinational concerns, and at the other end of the spectrum the microbrewing scene in various parts of the world has become established as a sustainable enterprise. For those involved in the scientific and technical aspects of fermented bever age production the changes have been no less daunting. The complete genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been determined and studies are underway in numerous laboratories throughout the world to unravel the expression of the genome (transcriptomics and proteomics) and understand exactly "how a yeast works. " This will undoubtedly con tribute to our understanding of yeast fermentation and flavor generation in a revolutionary way because it will enable the simultaneous monitor ing of all genes in the organism during the fermentation. In Chapters 2 and 3 of this volume Colin Slaughter and John Hammond bring the reader up-to-date in this rapidly moving area and cover the remarkable achievements of modern biochemistry and molecular biology. lain Campbell has also revised the systematics of culture and wild yeasts in Chapter 7. The other major technical change since the last edition of this book is the introduction of molecular characterization and detection of microor ganisms based largely, but not exclusively, on the polymerase chain reac tion (PCR) for amplification of specific DNA fragments.
Categories: Science

Environmental Microbiology

Environmental Microbiology

Introduction Lactic acid bacteria play an important role in the manufacture of
wines. They produce the deacidification of wine, contributing to the flavor and the
microbiological stability of the final product (1,2). Many of the phenotypes that are
 ...

Author: J. F. T. Spencer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781592597659

Category: Science

Page: 423

View: 667

Understanding the relationship between a microorganism and its environment is essential to the successful manipulation of industrial, biochemical, and medical processes. In Environmental Microbiology: Methods and Protocols, highly practiced experimentalists who often have perfected the methods they write about describe readily reproducible techniques for determining most of the important factors governing microorganisms and their habitats. Presented in step-by-step detail, these cutting-edge methods range from those for the study of marine organisms, to those for investigating microorganisms occurring in groundwater, to the biodiversity found in remote environments. The protocols for studying fermented milks are significant for investigators concerned with milk as an item of food for infants, small children, and even adults. Additional methods for the recovery and determination of nucleic acids and other compounds affecting, and affected by, microorganisms, are provided for certain enzymes produced by plant pathogens and for obtaining microbial species tolerant of such inhibitors as heavy metals. Review articles discuss the endophytic bacterium Bacillus mojavensis, the engineering of bacteria to enhance their ability to carry out bioremediation of aromatic compounds, and the use of chemical shift reagents and Na-NMR to study sodium gradients in microorganisms. The protocols follow the successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, each one offering step-by-step laboratory instructions, an introduction outlining the principle behind the technique, lists of equipment and reagents, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. State-of-the-art and highly practical, Environmental Microbiology: Methods and Protocols offers microbiological researchers a powerful set of techniques for investigating and understanding microorganisms in their native environments.
Categories: Science

Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology Second Edition

Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology  Second Edition

1 Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology : An Historical Perspective
E.M.T. El - Mansi , C.F.A. Bryce , Brian S. ... beer , vinegar , yogurt , cheese , and
wine were well - established technologies in ancient Egypt ( Figures 1.1 and 1.2 )
.

Author: E. M. T. El-Mansi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0849353343

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 576

View: 710

The pace of progress in fermentation microbiology and biotechnology is fast and furious, with new applications being implemented that are resulting in a spectrum of new products, from renewable energy to solvents and pharmaceuticals Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology, Second Edition builds on the foundation of the original seminal work, extending its reach to reflect the multidisciplinary and expansive nature of fermentation research and advancements. While retaining valuable information from the previous edition including a brief history of the industry, as well as an overview of instrumentation and fermentor design, fermentation kinetics, and flux control analysis, the second edition addresses numerous topics that have risen to prominence in the past few years. New chapters explore the diverse array of microbial biosynthetic pathways currently used by the fermentation and pharmaceutical industries for the production of primary and secondary metabolites such as amino acids, vitamins, antibiotics, immunosuppressants, and anti-tumor agents. The authors also examine recent advances in enzyme and co-factor engineering and cell immobilization with respect to both novel drug development and improved yields from microbial processes. Beyond pharmaceuticals, this volume considers the emerging role of fermentation in the conversion of renewable resources to fine chemicals, as well as its potential use in converting lignocellulosic waste to ethanol. In addition, readers will also discover new chapters devoted to discussions of industrial issues such as modeling and sensor technology, as well as supervision and control in the fermentation process. The text is packed with examples and case studies from the industry, carefully chosen to illuminate and reinforce principles and methodology discussed in the chapters. Organized and written in a concise and lucid manner that requires only a general background in microbiology, this volume meets the needs
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Winemaking Problems Solved

Winemaking Problems Solved

When will it re-ferment and push the corks? How do I best store and ship my bottled wine? Expert answers to these and further questions that arise during winemaking can be found in this convenient reference book.

Author: Christian E Butzke

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780857090188

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 432

View: 923

What is the best way to cold settle my white juices? How do I sample for Brettanomyces? What’s the best procedure to clean or store a used barrel? How do I care for the winery pump? My wine is too astringent - what do I do? When can I skip filtering my wine? When will it re-ferment and push the corks? How do I best store and ship my bottled wine? Expert answers to these and further questions that arise during winemaking can be found in this convenient reference book. Arranged in practical question and answer format, Winemaking problems solved provides brief, quickly accessible solutions to more than one hundred issues of frequent concern to winemaking professionals. Chapters review issues associated with grape analysis, juice and must preparation, yeast and malolactic fermentation, wine clarification and stabilisation, filtration, packaging and storage. Sections on winery equipment maintenance and troubleshooting, wine microbiology and sanitation are also included. The final part of the book focuses on particular wine quality issues, such as hazes and off-odours. With expert contributions from a diverse team of international enologists, Winemaking problems solved is an essential, hands-on reference for professionals in the winemaking industry and students of enology. Provides solutions to a variety of issues of frequent concern to wine making professionals Reviews issues related to grape analysis, filtration, packaging and microbiology A hands-on reference book written by a diverse team of international enologists
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Wine microbiology and biotechnology . Harwood Academic Publishers , Chur ,
Switzerland . 10. Esteve - Zarzoso , B. , C. Belloch , F. Uruburu , and A. Querol .
1999. Identification of yeasts by RFLP analysis of the 5.8S rRNA gene and the
two ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: NWU:35558005649674

Category: Microbial ecology

Page:

View: 742

Categories: Microbial ecology

Yeast technology

Yeast technology

Microbiological testing of active dry wine yeasts (German). Dt. Lebensm. ...
Formation of higher alcohols by wine yeasts and relation to taste thresholds. J.
Sci Food Agric. ... New developments in wine microbiology. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 36(
1):1-10 ...

Author: Gerald Reed

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401197717

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 454

View: 965

Yeasts are the active agents responsible for three of our most important foods - bread, wine, and beer - and for the almost universally used mind/ personality-altering drug, ethanol. Anthropologists have suggested that it was the production of ethanol that motivated primitive people to settle down and become farmers. The Earth is thought to be about 4. 5 billion years old. Fossil microorganisms have been found in Earth rock 3. 3 to 3. 5 billion years old. Microbes have been on Earth for that length of time carrying out their principal task of recycling organic matter as they still do today. Yeasts have most likely been on Earth for at least 2 billion years before humans arrived, and they playa key role in the conversion of sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide. Early humans had no concept of either microorganisms or fermentation, yet the earliest historical records indicate that by 6000 B. C. they knew how to make bread, beer, and wine. Earliest humans were foragers who col lected and ate leaves, tubers, fruits, berries, nuts, and cereal seeds most of the day much as apes do today in the wild. Crushed fruits readily undergo natural fermentation by indigenous yeasts, and moist seeds germinate and develop amylases that produce fermentable sugars. Honey, the first con centrated sweet known to humans, also spontaneously ferments to alcohol if it is by chance diluted with rainwater. Thus, yeasts and other microbes have had a long history of 2 to 3.
Categories: Juvenile Nonfiction

Food Microbiology

Food Microbiology

A high content of volatile acid in wines is indicative of a faulty fermentation . In the
United States the legal limit for volatile acid content is 0 . 14 g per 100 ml ,
expressed as acetic acid , for red wine and 0 . 12 g for white wine .
MICROBIOLOGY .

Author: William Carroll Frazier

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies

ISBN: UOM:39015000310493

Category: Food

Page: 537

View: 741

Categories: Food

Microbiota of Grapes Positive and Negative Role on Wine Quality

Microbiota of Grapes  Positive and Negative Role on Wine Quality

During spontaneous food/beverage fermentations, the microbiota associated with the raw material has a considerable importance: this microbial consortium evolves in reason of the nutrient content and of the physical, chemical, and biological ...

Author: Giuseppe Spano

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889451210

Category:

Page:

View: 731

During spontaneous food/beverage fermentations, the microbiota associated with the raw material has a considerable importance: this microbial consortium evolves in reason of the nutrient content and of the physical, chemical, and biological determinants present in the food matrix, shaping fermentation dynamics with significant impacts on the ‘qualities’ of final productions. The selection from the indigenous micro-biodiversity of ‘virtuous’ ecotypes that coupled pro-technological and biotechnological aptitudes provide the basis for the formulation of ‘tailored’ starter cultures. In the fermenting food and beverage arena, the wine sector is generally characterized by the generation of a high added value. Together with a pronounced seasonality, this feature strongly contributes to the selection of a large group of starter cultures. In the last years, several studies contributed to describe the complexity of grapevine-associated microbiota using both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The grape-associated microbial communities continuously change during the wine-making process, with different dominances that correspond to the main biotechnological steps that take place in wine. In order to simplify, following a time trend, four major dominances can be mainly considered: non-Saccharomyces, Saccharomyces, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and spoilage microbes. The first two dominances come in succession during the alcoholic fermentation: the impact of Saccharomyces (that are responsible of key enological step of ethanol production) can be complemented/integrated by the contributions of compatible non-Saccharomyces strains. Lactic acid bacteria constitute the malolactic consortium responsible of malolactic fermentation, a microbial bioconversion often desired in wine (especially in red wine production). Finally, the fourth dominance, the undesired microbiota, represents a panel of microorganisms that, coupling spoilage potential to the resistance to the harsh conditions typical of wine environment, can cause important economic losses. In each of these four dominances a complex microbial biodiversity has been described. The studies on the enological significance of the micro-biodiversity connected with each of the four dominances highlighted the presence of a dichotomy: in each consortia there are species/strains that, in reason of their metabolisms, are able to improve wine ‘qualities’ (resource of interest in starter cultures design), and species/strains that with their metabolism are responsible of depreciation of wine. Articles describing new oenological impacts of yeasts and bacteria belonging to the four main categories above mentioned (non-Saccharomyces, Saccharomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, and spoilage microbes) are welcome. Moreover, in this Research Topic, we encourage mini-review submissions on topics of immediate interest in wine microbiology that link microbial biodiversity with positive/negative effects in wine.
Categories: