Frontiers of X Ray Astronomy

Frontiers of X Ray Astronomy

14 X - ray astronomy in the new millennium : a summary BY ROGER D. BLANDFORD Caltech Introduction Out of the nearly 70 octaves of the electromagnetic spectrum that have been opened up to astronomical observation , X - ray astronomers ...

Author: A. C. Fabian

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521534879

Category: Science

Page: 246

View: 664

X-ray astronomy has undergone a revolution in recent years. With the launch of two orbiting observatories, Chandra and XMM-Newton, astronomers are now able to obtain spectra and images at a higher resolution than ever before. Observations have had a major impact on topics ranging from protostars to cosmology. The contributions in this 2004 work, by leading authorities in the field, originate from a Royal Society Discussion Meeting that was held to review results from the current generation of X-ray telescopes, and set them in context. This book is a valuable reference for research astronomers and graduate students wishing to understand the latest developments in this exciting field.
Categories: Science

X Ray Astronomy

X Ray Astronomy

X-RAY ASTRONOMY IN THE FUTURE J L Culhane Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London. INTRODUCTION It is apparent from the large number of topics that are now pursued by observations ...

Author: R.D. Andresen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401099493

Category: Science

Page: 642

View: 133

The 15th ESLAB symposium was held at the end of June 1981 in Amsterdam with the topic being X-ray astronomy. The aim of this symposium was to bring together the international astrophysical community in order to 1. review the present state of X-ray astronomy in the light of new observations gathered in recent missions and to review data on interesting objects in correlated wavelen8th regions; 2. discuss theoretical models describing the phenomena observed; 3. present ESA's European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) and to discuss future X-ray missions and their associated instrumenta tion. These topics seemed to be so interesting for the scientific community that more than 120 contributions were submitted. Of these, 94 were finally accepted and approximately 200 participants attended the 5-day meeting. The symposium was organised in nine sessions covering the whole field. Every main topic was introduced by a review lecture covering the state of-the-art. The aim of the meeting was to assess the impact of the new X-ray findings on the general astronomical knowled8e. The discussion ranged from non-degenerated stellar X-ray sources and stellar coronae tL supernovae, bursters, globular clusters, normal galaxies and finally to cosmology. In each field the philosophy was to bring together the relevant information obtained in radio, optical and X-ray observations followed by theoretical discussions. A large number of contributed papers were also presented within this framework.
Categories: Science

X Ray Astronomy

X Ray Astronomy

The group of scientists at American Science and Engineering, under the guidance of Riccardo Giacconi, which was responsible for the discovery of extrasolar X-ray sources in 1962, maintained a leading position in X-ray astronomy during ...

Author: R. Giacconi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401021050

Category: Science

Page: 452

View: 856

It was about fourteen years ago that some of us became intrigued with the idea of searching the sky for X-ray and gamma-ray sources other than the Sun, the only celestial emitter of high-energy photons known at that time. It was, of course, clear that an effort in this direction would not have been successful unless there occurred, somewhere in space, processes capable of producing high-energy photons much more efficiently than the processes responsible for the radiative emission of the Sun or of ordinary stars. The possible existence of such processes became the subject of much study and discussion. As an important part of this activity, I wish to recall a one-day conference on X-ray astronomy held at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in 1960. The theoretical predictions did not provide much encouragement. While several 'unusual' celestial objects were pin-pointed as possible, or even likely, sources of X-rays, it did not look as if any of them would be strong enough to be observable with instru mentation not too far beyond the state of the art. Fortunately, we did not allow our selves to be dissuaded. As far as I am personally concerned, I must admit that my main motivation for pressing forward was a deep-seated faith in the boundless re sourcefulness of nature, which so often leaves the most daring imagination of man far behind.
Categories: Science

X Ray Astronomy

X Ray Astronomy

Yet the sensitivity of these observatories fell still quite short from that necessary to realize the full potential of X-ray astronomy. In fact we were constrained to study only the most luminous and unusual Systems in our galaxy, ...

Author: G. Giacconi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400990883

Category: Science

Page: 414

View: 484

This volume contains a series of lectures presented at the 5th Course of the International School of Astrophysics held in Erice (Sicily) from July 1st to July 14, 1979 at the "E. Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture. The course was fully supported by a grant from the NATO Advanced Institute Programme. It was attended by about one hundred participants from ten countries. Since the discovery of the first extra-solar X-ray source in the early 1960's, X-ray astronomy has played an increasingly important role in the study of the Universe, bringing new insight to almost every field of modern astrophysics from stellar evolution to cosmology. Generally speaking, this branch of astronomy is concerned with the discovery, classification and study of "hot matter" in the universe, including high energy non-thermal pheno mena. In particular, X-ray observations appear to provide the main, if not the only, probe to inspect regions where collapsed objects are formed, such as the environment of neutron stars and of black holes in the presence of matter accretion onto the objects themselves. It is significant that the first candidate black hole (Cyg X-I) has been primarily singled out by its X-ray emission. In the same context, it is well known that one of the fundamental problems in modern astrophysics is the understanding of the strong activity taking place in galactic nuclei.
Categories: Science

X ray Astronomy in the 1980 s

X ray Astronomy in the 1980 s

27 : N82 26072 349 HARD X - RAY IMAGING FROM EXPLORER J. E. Grindlay and S. S. Murray Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics ABSTRACT Hard X - ray Astronomy ( at energies 210 keV ) has not yet enjoyed the high sensitivity and ...

Author: Stephen S. Holt

Publisher:

ISBN: OSU:32435028231579

Category: X-ray astronomy

Page: 625

View: 825

Categories: X-ray astronomy

15 year Plan for X ray Astronomy 1994 2008

15 year Plan for X ray Astronomy  1994 2008

X - ray astronomy thus remains our most fundamental and powerful tool for exploring the high - energy Universe . Two flights had ended in failure . But a third a flight , scanning the moonlit sky with specially developed Geiger counters ...

Author: United States. X-ray Astronomy Program Working Group

Publisher:

ISBN: UVA:X004536343

Category: X-ray astronomy

Page: 89

View: 671

Categories: X-ray astronomy

Tutorial Guide to X ray and Gamma ray Astronomy

Tutorial Guide to X ray and Gamma ray Astronomy

until tens of GeV), and very-high-energy (VHE) domain (above tens of GeV). γray astrophysics deals with only the non-thermal nature of the underlying emission processes as compared with X-ray space astrophysics, as well as particle ...

Author: Cosimo Bambi

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811563379

Category: Science

Page: 279

View: 753

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. The first part discusses the basic theoretical and observational topics related to black hole astrophysics; the optics and the detectors employed in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy; and past, present, and future X-ray and gamma-ray missions. The second part then describes data reduction and analysis, the statistics used in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, and demonstrates how to write a successful proposal and a scientific paper. Data reduction in connection with specific X-ray and gamma-ray missions is covered in the appendices. Presenting the state of the art in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, this is both a valuable textbook for students and an important reference resource for researchers in the field.
Categories: Science

X Ray Astronomy in the Exosat Era

X Ray Astronomy in the Exosat Era

The time delay between the X-ray and optical burst depends on the distance between the neutron star and the ... EXOSAT and Tenma observed 2S1636–536 in coordination with optical coverage using the Danish 1.4 metre telescope at La Silla.

Author: A. Peacock

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400954489

Category: Science

Page: 738

View: 900

Algol is a triple system containing a 70 hr eclipsing binary (K IV and B8 V) in a 694 day orbit with an A V star. The X-ray emission from this system (Schnopper et al 1976) is thought to be associated with a corona surrounding the lobe filling and synchron ously rotating K IV star. This is based on the similarity of the X-ray spectrum and luminosity of this system to that of the RS CVn binaries which also contain K sub-giants with similar rotation periods and the fact that the luminosity of any coronae surrounding the B8 V and AV companion stars should not be enhanced by rapid rotation (Pallavicini et al 1980, White et al 1980). The Einstein SSS measurement showed the X-ray spectrum to be two component with 6 7 temperatures of 7. 10 K and 3. 10 K (White et al. 1980). As dis cussed by Swank et al. (1981), the problem in understanding stellar coronae in general is how to scale up the solar model to account for the enhanced luminosities. The close to 900 inclination and similar sizes for the Band K stars of 3. 6 and 3. 8 R0 respectively make Algol an ideal candidate for an X-ray eclipse measurement wherein the size of the X-ray emitting coronal structures can be directly measured. In this paper we report a continuous observation through the secondary eclipse of Algol using the EXOSAT Observatory. 2.
Categories: Science

X Ray Astronomy with the Einstein Satellite

X Ray Astronomy with the Einstein Satellite

Proceedings of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society Meeting on X-Ray Astronomy held at the Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., January 28–30, ...

Author: R. Giacconi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400984592

Category: Science

Page: 330

View: 664

The meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts on January 28- 30, 1980, marks the coming of age of X-ray astronomy. In the 18 years since the discovery of the first extrasolar X-ray source, Sco X-l, the field has experienced an extremely rapid instrumentation development culminating with the launch on November 13, 1978 of the Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2) which first introduced the use of high resolution imaging telescopes to the study of galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources. The Einstein Observatory instruments can detect sources as faint as 10-7 Sco X-lor about 17 magnitudes fainter. The technological developments in the field have been paralleled by a host of new discoveries: in the early 1960's the detection of 9 "X-ray stars", objects 10 times more luminous in X-rays than the Sun and among the brightest stellar objects at all wavelengths; in the late 1960's and early 1970's the discovery of the nature of such systems which were identified as collapsed stars (neutron stars and black holes) in mass exchange binary systems, and the detection of the first few extragalactic sources.
Categories: Science

X and Gamma Ray Astronomy

X  and Gamma Ray Astronomy

The column densities of interstellar hydrogen to X-ray sources derived from their spectra are compared with those ... different from those obtained from the radio observations of the 21 cm line and other astronomical information.

Author: H. Bradt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401025850

Category: Science

Page: 333

View: 184

The IAU Symposium No. 55 on 'X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Astronomy' has occurred, not entirely by coincidence, at an important moment in the development of these new branches of observational astronomy. In X-ray astronomy the data from the first X-ray observatory UHURU have contributed to a new view of the X-ray sky and a new conception of the nature and properties of galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources. In gamma-ray astronomy the exciting and often controversial nature of the results underlines the importance of the forthcoming launch of SAS-B, the first orbiting y-ray observatory. As Bruno Rossi reminds us (p. I), the Symposium occurred almost exactly ten years after the first detection of the X-ray star Sco X-I. During this time we have moved from the detection of a handful of the nearest and brightest sources to the detailed study of the nature of stellar sources in the farthest reaches of our own galaxy and in external galaxies of the local group. The detection of pulsating X-ray sources in bi nary systems permits the measurement of pulsation periods, and orbital parameters with precisions comparable to any yet achieved with traditional observational techniques. The strong indications that most X-ray sources are extremely compact objects give us confidence that X-ray astronomy will playa significant and possibly decisive role in the study of stars near the end point of stellar evolution.
Categories: Science